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Posts Tagged ‘Science’

Watch Out for These Science Events in 2020

Posted by hkarner - 3. Januar 2020

Date: 31‑12‑2019

Source: Scientific American By Davide Castelvecchi, Nature

A Mars invasion, a climate meeting and human–animal hybrids are set to shape the research agenda

2020 will see a veritable Mars invasion as several spacecraft, including three landers, head to the red planet. NASA will launch its Mars 2020 rover, which will stash rock samples that will be returned to Earth in a future mission and will also feature a small, detachable helicopter drone. China will send its first lander to Mars, Huoxing‑1, which will deploy a small rover. A Russian spacecraft will deliver a European Space Agency (ESA) rover to the red planet — if issues with the landing parachute can be resolved. And the United Arab Emirates will send an orbiter, in the first Mars mission by an Arab country.

Closer to home, China is planning to send the Chang’e‑5 sample‑return mission to the Moon. And elsewhere in the Solar System, Japan’s Hayabusa2 mission is due to return samples of the asteroid Ryugu to Earth, and NASA’s OSIRIS‑REx will bite off a chunk of its own asteroid, Bennu.

BIG SKY, BIG DATA Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Tsinghua University may soon top the world league in science research

Posted by hkarner - 17. November 2018

Date: 15-11-2018
Source: The Economist

In China, its rapid rise is not unique

Tsinghua university was born out of national humiliation. It was founded in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion—an anti-foreign uprising in 1900—and paid for with the reparations exacted from China by America. Now Tsinghua is a major source of Chinese pride as it contends for accolades for research in science, technology, engineering and maths (stem). In 2013-16 it produced more of the top 1% most highly cited papers in maths and computing, and more of the 10% most highly cited papers in stem, than any other university in the world, reckons Simon Marginson of Oxford University (see chart). The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (mit) still leads in the top 1% of stem papers, but Mr Marginson says Tsinghua is on track to be “number one in five years or less”. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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How China Is Trying to Invent the Future as a Science Superpower

Posted by hkarner - 1. Juli 2018

Date: 30-06-2018
Source: Scientific American

In its quest for scientific achievement, China’s research and development spending has grown rapidly over the past two decades, making it second only to the United States

The following essay is reprinted with permission from The Conversation, an online publication covering the latest research.

Genetic engineering, the search for dark matter, quantum computing and communications, artificial intelligence, brain science—the list of potentially disruptive research goes on. Each has significant implications for future industries, defense technologies and ethical understandings of what it means to be human.

And, increasingly, the notable achievements in these fields are coming not from the great centers of science in the West, but Beijing, Shanghai, Hefei, Shenzhen and a number of other Chinese cities that make up China’s extensive research system. Inevitably, the question arises: How much of the future is being invented in Chinese labs?

The current trade negotiations between China and United States have brought China’s rapidly developing technological capabilities into clearer focus. As China aims to achieve leadership in emerging key technologies, the U.S. is quick to attribute much of Chinese progress to the theft of American intellectual property and forced technology transfers. But, as someone who has followed China’s scientific development for years, I’ve seen dramatic improvements in China’s own innovative capacity, along with the science base needed for success in the knowledge-intensive industries it seeks to master. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Langfristiges Wachstum: Ökonomen gegen Naturwissenschaftler

Posted by hkarner - 5. März 2018

Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Harvard University and recipient of the 2011 Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics, was the chief economist of the International Monetary Fund from 2001 to 2003. The co-author of This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, his new book, The Curse of Cash, was released in August 2016.

CAMBRIDGE – Die meisten Wirtschaftsprognostiker haben die jüngsten Fortschritte bei der künstlichen Intelligenz (z. B. den durch das selbstlernende Schachprogramm von DeepMind im Dezember demonstrierten Quantensprung) achselzuckend zur Kenntnis genommen. Sie sehen darin keine größeren Auswirkungen auf das längerfristige Wachstum. Dieser Pessimismus ist mit Sicherheit einer der Gründe, warum die realen (inflationsbereinigten) Zinssätze weiter extrem niedrig bleiben, auch wenn der als Stimmungsbarometer geltende Zinssatz zehnjähriger US-Staatsanleihen in den letzten Monaten um einen halben Prozentpunkt gestiegen ist. Liegt der angebotsseitig begründete Pessimismus richtig, dürften die jüngsten massiven Steuersenkungs- und Ausgabepakete in den USA eher zu einem Anstieg der Inflation führen als die Investitionen anzukurbeln.

Es gibt viele Gründe, die aktuelle US-Fiskalpolitik abzulehnen, auch wenn die Senkung der Körperschaftsteuer sinnvoll war (wenn auch nicht in der verabschiedeten Höhe). Schließlich leben wir in einer Zeit steigender Ungleichheit und fallender Einkommensanteile für die Arbeit (im Verhältnis zum Kapital). Die Regierungen müssen mehr und nicht weniger tun, um Einkommen und Vermögen umzuverteilen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The Secret of Dutch Speedskating—It’s Not What You Think

Posted by hkarner - 24. Februar 2018

Date: 23-02-2018
Source: The Wall Street Journal

The Netherlands cemented their place as the greatest speedskating nation on earth by leaning on university statisticians.

GANGNEUNG, South Korea—Every four years, the Winter Olympics bring a raft of theories to explain the Netherlands’ speedskating dominance. They tend to be of varying accuracy.

There are huge reasons like the country’s history, its passion for the sport, and the huge participation numbers among Dutch people. (Very true.) Then there is the impact of having eight full-time, well-funded professional speedskating teams. (Also true.) And, as NBC’s Katie Couric suggested during coverage of the Opening Ceremony, there is the fact that the Dutch consider speedskating to be “an important mode of transport” over frozen canals. (Not even a little true.)

But there is one reason that doesn’t get nearly as much attention. And yet, it’s the single feature that allows the Dutch to turn its wealth of speedskating talent into a full-on medal assault. The team calls it the Performance Matrix. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Richard Dawkins Offers Advice for Donald Trump, and Other Wisdom

Posted by hkarner - 16. August 2017

Date: 15-08-2017
Source: Scientific American

The biologist and atheist, whose latest book was released this week, talks about the reliability of science, artificial intelligence, religion and the president

Richard Dawkins, the biologist and author, is complicated. I reached this conclusion in 2005 when I participated in a fellowship for journalists organized by the pro-religion Templeton Foundation. Ten of us spent several weeks at the University of Cambridge listening to 18 scientists and philosophers point out areas where science and religion converge. Alone among the speakers, Dawkins argued, in his usual uncompromising fashion, that science and religion are incompatible. But in his informal interactions with me and other fellows, Dawkins was open-minded and a good listener. Over drinks one evening, a Christian journalist described witnessing an episode of faith healing. Instead of dismissing the story outright, Dawkins pressed for details. He seemed to find the story fascinating. His curiosity, at least for a moment, trumped his skepticism. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Scientists Need to Move Fast and Break Things

Posted by hkarner - 2. August 2017

Date: 01-08-2017
Source: Scientific American By Ijad Madisch

Research labs should take a page from the tech companies

The scientific method isn’t just for the lab—it works well in a tech company, too.

Just like in science, developing a new idea starts with a hypothesis, experiments and iteration. The main difference is that—at least in my experience as both a scientist and a CEO of a start-up—the tech company implements results faster.

That’s why I’m making a call for science in real time; for a move fast, break things and talk about it mentality at the lab bench. If scientists shared their work earlier and got productive feedback from peers at the right time, they could work more efficiently. Then they could come up with solutions to problems that society will have to deal with in the future, like energy shortages or epidemics, faster. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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How to Maintain America’s Edge

Posted by hkarner - 23. April 2017

Date: 22-04-2017
Source: Foreign Affairs

Increase Funding for Basic Science

In February 2016, scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the California Institute of Technology, or Caltech, joined with the National Science Foundation (NSF) to share some remarkable news: two black holes 1.3 billion light-years away had collided, and the resulting gravitational waves had been “heard” by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). This was the first time such waves—ripples in the space-time continuum caused by the violent acceleration of massive objects—had ever been directly observed. Albert Einstein had predicted such waves a century ago, but it was long doubted that instrumentation sensitive enough to confirm their existence could ever be created. It took more than four decades of work by a vast team of scientists to make the impossible possible. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Why Scientists Are Marching

Posted by hkarner - 19. April 2017

 

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A Scientific Outlook for a Post-Factual World

Posted by hkarner - 30. November 2016

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