Föhrenbergkreis Finanzwirtschaft

Unkonventionelle Lösungen für eine zukunftsfähige Gesellschaft

Posts Tagged ‘Poverty’

Reducing Inequality and Poverty in America

Posted by hkarner - 24. August 2016

Photo of Martin Feldstein

Martin Feldstein

Martin Feldstein, Professor of Economics at Harvard University and President Emeritus of the National Bureau of Economic Research, chaired President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984. In 2006, he was appointed to President Bush’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and, in 2009, was appointed to President Obama’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board. Currently, he is on the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission, and the Group of 30, a non-profit, international body that seeks greater understanding of global economic issues.

AUG 23, 2016, Project Syndicate

CAMBRIDGE – With a new American president and Congress taking office just six months from now, the time has come to rethink the government’s programs aimed at helping the poor. The current election season has reflected widespread concern about the issue of inequality. Reducing poverty, rather than penalizing earned success, is the right focus for dealing with it.

The United States government now spends more than $600 billion a year on programs to help the poor. That’s about 4% of America’s total GDP. Half of those outlays are for health programs, including Medicaid and the health-insurance subsidies under the 2010 Affordable Care Act (so-called Obamacare). The other half are for a complex range of programs including food stamps, housing subsidies, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and cash relief. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Promises to Keep in 2016

Posted by hkarner - 21. Januar 2016

Photo of Bill Gates

Bill Gates

Bill Gates, Founder and Technology Adviser of the Microsoft Corporation, is Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Photo of Melinda Gates

Melinda Gates

Melinda Gates is Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

JAN 20, 2016, Project Syndicate

DAVOS – We live in extraordinary times. Each day seems to bring fresh headlines about an unfolding crisis – whether it is migration, economic volatility, security, or climate change. One factor common to all these complex and unprecedented challenges is poverty; so eliminating it will make overcoming them significantly easier.

There is good reason for optimism about progress on reducing inequity. Since the turn of the century, remarkable strides have been taken toward a world in which every person has the chance to lead a healthy, productive life. Maternal deaths have almost halved; child mortality and malaria deaths have halved; extreme poverty has more than halved. And last year, the world signed up to finish the job. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The World is Getting Better!

Posted by hkarner - 31. Dezember 2015

… but we are being betrayed by the media, which believe to need living of bad news! (hfk)

So: let’s be optimisitic! A Happy New Year!

Mohamed Nagdy and Max Roser (2015) – ‘Optimism & Pessimism’. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: http://ourworldindata.org/data/culture-values-and-society/optimism-pessimism/ 

The world is improving in almost every measurable way; fewer people are dying of disease, conflict and famine; more of us are receiving a basic education; the world is becoming more democratic; we live longer and lead healthier lives. So why is that we, mostly in the developed world, are pessimistic about our collective future?

Things Are Getting Better

With all the negative news stories and sensationalism that exists in the media it may be hard to believe things are improving. These events can be contextualised as short-term fluctuations in an otherwise positive global trend. Quantifying this progress and identifying its causes will help researchers develop successful strategies to combat the world’s problems. Below is a selection of graphs showing just how much progress has been made over the centuries. More examples can be found on http://ourworldindata.org/data/.

Absolute number of people living in extreme poverty, 1820-2011 – Max Roser13

Roser Poverty2

Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Challenges in maintaining progress against global poverty

Posted by hkarner - 24. Dezember 2015

Martin Ravallion 23 December 2015, voxeu

Edmond D. Villani Chair of Economics, Georgetown University

The book strives to provide an accessible synthesis of economic thinking on key questions:

  • How is poverty measured?
  • How much poverty is there?
  • Why does poverty exist?
  • What can be done to reduce and even eliminate it?

The main lessons that emerge from the book on the challenges in thinking and action about poverty going forward are:

A transition in thinking Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Poverty Shrinks Brains from Birth

Posted by hkarner - 1. April 2015

Date: 01-04-2015
Source: Scientific American

Studies show that children from low-income families have smaller brains and lower cognitive abilities

Researchers have long suspected that children’s behaviour and cognitive abilities are linked to their socioeconomic status, particularly for those who are very poor.

The stress of growing up poor can hurt a child’s brain development starting before birth, research suggests—and even very small differences in income can have major effects on the brain.

Researchers have long suspected that children’s behaviour and cognitive abilities are linked to their socioeconomic status, particularly for those who are very poor. The reasons have never been clear, although stressful home environments, poor nutrition, exposure to industrial chemicals such as lead and lack of access to good education are often cited as possible factors. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Jedem sechsten Deutschen droht die Armutsfalle

Posted by hkarner - 25. Januar 2015

Date: 24-01-2015
Source: Die Welt

Das Statistische Bundesamt präsentiert alarmierende Zahlen. Nie war das Risiko zu verarmen so groß. Auch 3,1 Millionen Erwerbstätige verdienen so wenig, dass sie unter die Armutsschwelle rutschen.

Armutsrisiko DBei Frauen ist das Armutsrisiko in Deutschland spürbar höher als bei Männern

Immer mehr Erwerbstätige in Deutschland können offenbar kaum von ihrem Einkommen leben. Wie die „Saarbrücker Zeitung“ berichtet, bezogen laut Statistischem Bundesamt Ende 2013 rund 3,1 Millionen Beschäftigte ein Einkommen unterhalb der Armutsschwelle. Im Jahr 2008 hatte die Zahl noch bei rund 2,5 Millionen gelegen. Das ist eine Steigerung um 25 Prozent. Überhaupt liegt die sogenannte Armutsgefährdungsquote mit 16,1 Prozent auf Rekordniveau.

Als armutsgefährdet gilt, wer einschließlich aller staatlichen Transfers wie zum Beispiel Wohn- oder Kindergeld weniger als 60 Prozent des mittleren Einkommens erzielt. 2013 lag diese Schwelle in Deutschland bei 979 Euro netto im Monat. Bei Familien mit zwei Kindern spricht man von Armutsgefährdung, wenn das monatliche Nettohaushaltseinkommen unter 2056 Euro liegt. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Good for the Rich, Bad for the Poor

Posted by hkarner - 1. Dezember 2014

Inequality is bad for income growth of the poor (but not for that of the rich)

Branko Milanovic, Roy van der Weide 29 November 2014

Visiting Presidential Professor, Graduate Center, University of New York and Senior Scholar, Luxembourg Income Center

Economist on the Poverty and Inequality Research Team in the Development Research Group, World Bank

Concerns about income inequality are ethical and political as well as economic. Ethically, rising inequality – particularly that in favour capital owners who do not labour for their income – is troubling. Politically, conflation of the rich and the powerful undermines democracy and the ‘background institutions’ that Rawls considered essential for a well-ordered liberal society.1 But for economists, it is the economic problems associated with inequality that are of first-order importance. Among those, none is more important than the effect of inequality on growth. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Experte: „Die globale Ungleichheit geht zurück“

Posted by hkarner - 22. September 2014

Milanovic BrankoBranko Milanović(60) ist US-Ökonom an der City University of New York und forscht auf dem Gebiet der Einkommensverteilung. Zuvor war der gebürtige Serbe leitender Ökonom in der Weltbank.

Branko Milanović ist der Doyen der Ungleichheitsforschung. Der »Presse am Sonntag« verrät er, warum er lieber reich in einem armen Land wäre als umgekehrt. Und warum er selbst nicht sagt, wie viel Geld er hat.

20.09.2014 | 18:47 |   (Die Presse)

Auf meine erste Frage bekäme ich in Österreich keine Antwort. Ich frage dennoch, weil Sie als Amerikaner vielleicht einen entspannteren Umgang mit dem Thema haben: Herr Milanović, wie viel verdienen Sie?

Branko Milanović: Das würde Ihnen in den USA auch niemand sagen. Aber wenn wir ernsthaft über Einkommensungleichheit und Armut sprechen wollen, sollten wir wissen, wo wir stehen.

Also, wie viel verdienen Sie?

Ich würde Ihnen lieber sagen, wo ich in der Einkommenspyramide stehe.

Und zwar?

Mein Haushalt liegt im zweiten oder dritten Prozent der reichsten US-Haushalte. Das heißt, global bin ich im obersten Prozent der Top-Verdiener. Dasselbe gilt für die reichsten zwölf Prozent aller Amerikaner und die reichsten acht Prozent der Europäer.

Sie forschen über Einkommensverteilung, seit Sie junger Wissenschaftler im sozialistischen Ex-Jugoslawien waren. Wie war das damals möglich? Ich dachte, Ungleichheit war damals von der Partei verboten. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Poverty Matters for Capitalists

Posted by hkarner - 11. Juli 2014

By Charles GaveCharles Gave

GaveKal Dragonomics
July 8, 2014

Inflation is a much misunderstood phenomenon. Most people assume that a CPI rate of 10% means that most prices are rising by a similar amount. In reality, some prices may be falling even while others soar. This matters because price variations affect socio-economic groups in very different ways. The rich tend not to be impacted unduly by price hikes for “necessities” such as food, rent and fuel, while the impact on the poor is to slash that portion of their income left over for discretionary spending.

A sharp rise in the price of staples imposes an effective tax on low earners, resulting in recession conditions for firms that sell to them. The broad picture in the US may be of low interest rates and rising real average incomes, but the poor have seen their real incomes slashed since 2008 and with scant subsequent improvement. The poor also own few assets. Aside from the inequity of such a situation, the macro concern is that the erosion of real incomes creeps up the earning scale so that middle earners eventually see an erosion of living standards. At some point, the decline in activity created by a fall in average incomes will lead to a recession.

I have tested this postulate by building a US inflation index comprised of price variations for oil, food and rent. This can be seen in the chart below where rent is weighted at 50%, food at 30% and energy at 20%. I term this price measure the Walmart Index since it is where most low earners tend to shop. The chart shows the relationship since 1934 between the US CPI and my adapted measure of the price index most relevant to the lives of the least well-off in America. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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WFC Studie: Sparpolitik kostet jährlich 2,3 Billionen US-Dollar

Posted by klausgabriel - 15. Januar 2014

Handelsblatt.com, 14/1

Hamburg, 14.01.2014 – Öffentliche Sparpolitik führt dazu, dass Arbeitskräfte und Produktionsmöglichkeiten ungenutzt bleiben. Eine Studie<http://worldfuturecouncil.us7.list-manage.com/track/click?u=fdf5f8a04d91dd7a784016d69&id=42cb4832b1&e=94b5679fae> der Stiftung World Future Council (WFC) gibt den Wert der dadurch weltweit verlorenen Produktion mit rund 2,3 Billionen US-Dollar an. Das entspricht dem Bruttoinlandsprodukt von Großbritannien. Allein die Eurozone verliert durch die Austeritätspolitik rund 580 Milliarden Euro.

Jakob von Uexküll, Gründer des World Future Council und des Alternativen Nobelpreises, kommentiert das Ergebnis: „Angesichts der gewaltigen Herausforderungen von Klimaschutz und Armutsüberwindung ist es absurd, dass wir so große ökonomische Potenziale ungenutzt lassen.“ Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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