Posts Tagged ‘Peterson’
Posted by hkarner - 2. April 2016
Source: The Economist: Schumpeter
IN 1998 Peter Mandelson, a leading member of Britain’s then Labour government, said he was “intensely relaxed about people getting filthy rich as long as they pay their taxes.” Today Lord Mandelson is more uptight; he worries about the rising inequality and stagnating middle-class incomes brought about by globalisation. His volte-face is typical of the global elite. The head of the IMF, Christine Lagarde, says that rising inequality casts a “dark shadow” over the global economy. A recent OECD report warns that rising inequality will be a “major policy challenge” for all countries.
In a new study, “Rich People, Poor Countries: The Rise of Emerging-Market Tycoons and their Mega Firms”, Caroline Freund of the Peterson Institute in Washington, DC, makes an important contribution to understanding this challenge. She draws a distinction between rich-world billionaires and those of the emerging economies, whose numbers have been rising at a faster rate. In 2004 the emerging world accounted for 20% of the 587 billionaires in Forbes magazine’s annual survey. By 2014 it accounted for 43% of the 1,645 billionaires on the list. In the rich world the share who were self-made, rather than heirs to a fortune, was fairly stable between 2001 and 2014, at about 60%. In the emerging world the self-made proportion rose from 56% to 79%. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Economist, Emerging Markets, Freund, Globalization, IMF, Peterson | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 1. September 2015
INTERVIEW WITH OLIVIER BLANCHARD, IMF Survey
August 31, 2015
- IMF Chief Economist Blanchard to step down end September
- Financial crisis raises potential existential crisis for macroeconomics
- Need to address longer term issues of low productivity growth, increasing inequality
Olivier Blanchard will step down as Economic Counsellor and Director of the IMF’s Research Department at the end of September.
He will join the Peterson Institute for International Economics in October as the first C. Fred Bergsten senior fellow, a post named for the founder of the influential 35-year-old, Washington-based think tank.
When French-born Blanchard, a former chairman of the economics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, joined the IMF on September 1, 2008, little did he realize that he would be at the center of a global economic storm. Two weeks later, Lehman Brother’s bank collapsed, marking what many consider the start of the 2008-09 global financial crisis. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Blanchard, IMF, Peterson | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 24. August 2015
William R. Cline 24 August 2015, voxeu
Economists continue to debate whether – and to what extent – Greek debts should be relieved. This column takes through the details of Greek debt, what relief options are open to Greece, and what the likely consequences of relief might be for all parties. Yet again, there are no easy choices – but that doesn’t mean economists and policymakers shouldn’t try.
In the first half of 2015 the populist and confrontational policies of the new Syriza government destabilised the Greek economy, climaxing in the closure of the banks and a referendum rejecting the terms of a financial rescue package offered by the Eurozone partners. But facing the alternative of Grexit, Tsipras, in July, tentatively agreed to a new support programme with conditions at least as demanding as those rejected in the referendum. The new agreement did raise the possibility of debt relief through longer maturities, but explicitly ruled out a haircut on debt principal (Euro Summit 2015). On August 14, 2015, Eurozone finance ministers agreed with Greece on the new support program for €86 billion. The IMF indicated it would only participate if the Eurozone grants Greece debt relief.1
Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Cline, Debt, EFSF, ESM, Euro, Finanzkrise, Greece, Haircut, Peterson, Restructuring, voxeu | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 1. Juli 2015
Jacob Funk Kirkegaard rechnet mit längeren Bankferien und zahlreichen Firmenpleiten als Folge der Kapitalverkehrskontrollen in Griechenland
STANDARD: Derzeit versucht Griechenland, mit Kapitalverkehrskontrollen über die Runden zu kommen. Manche Experten meinen, dass das Land damit die aktuelle Krise durchtauchen könnte. Was sagen Sie?
Kirkegaard: Die Folgen der Kapitalverkehrskontrollen sind, dass die Leute zu wenig Cash haben. Es gibt auch viele Unternehmen, die Engpässe bekommen. Sie können ihre Lieferanten und Löhne nicht bezahlen. Viele Klein- und Mittelbetriebe werden zweifellos in den nächsten Wochen pleitegehen. Das ist eine Katastrophe für die griechische Wirtschaft. Aber es ist der einzige Weg, ein noch größeres Desaster zu verhindern. Wenn man keine Kapitalverkehrskontrollen durchführen würde, käme es zu einem Bankrun, sie wären insolvent, müssten geschlossen werden und könnten wegen Kapitalmangels auch nicht wieder aufsperren. Zur von Athen für den 6. Juli in Aussicht gestellten Öffnung der Banken wird es aus meiner Sicht nicht kommen, weil es keine neuen Notfallmittel der Europäischen Zentralbank geben wird, solange diese Regierung im Amt ist.
STANDARD: Die EZB könnte sogar einen Schritt weiter gehen und die bereits verliehenen 90 Milliarden Euro zurückverlangen, da das Programm für Griechenland nun ausgelaufen ist.
Kirkegaard: Es gibt gute Argumente dafür. Aber die EZB verhält sich sehr entgegenkommend und damit clever. Mit der jetzigen Vorgangsweise hat die Notenbank die Kapitalverkehrskontrollen erzwungen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Banken, Euro, Finanzkrise, Greece, Kirkegard, Peterson, Standard | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 12. September 2013
Edwin M. Truman (Peterson Institute), 10 September 2013, voxeu
Should we expect more global financial crises? This column argues that we should. Global financial crises are far from being a thing of the past because they are often caused by buildups of excessive domestic and foreign debt. To successfully address them and to limit negative spillovers, we need coordinated actions that prevent a contraction in global liquidity. Unless we establish this more robust, coordinated global financial safety net centred on central banks (which is where the money is), we may end up being incapable of addressing inevitable future crises.
The prospect that the Federal Reserve will soon ease off on its purchases of long-term assets has increased financial-market uncertainty and contributed to a retrenchment in global capital flows. This turbulence has revived discussion of the need to enhance the global financial safety net –i.e. the set of arrangements to provide international liquidity to countries facing sharp reversals in capital inflows despite following sound economic and financial policies.1 Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Central Banks, Peterson, voxeu | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 9. April 2013
Source: Project Syndicate
WASHINGTON, DC – While some observers argue that the key lesson of the eurozone’s baptism by fire is that greater fiscal and banking integration are needed to sustain the currency union, many economists pointed this out even before the euro’s introduction in 1999. The real lessons of the euro crisis lie elsewhere – and they are genuinely new and surprising.
The received wisdom about currency unions was that their optimality could be assessed on two grounds. First, were the regions to be united similar or dissimilar in terms of their economies’ vulnerability to external shocks? The more similar the regions, the more optimal the resulting currency area, because policy responses could be applied uniformly across its entire territory.
If economic structures were dissimilar, then the second criterion became critical: Were arrangements in place to adjust to asymmetric shocks? The two key arrangements that most economists emphasized were fiscal transfers, which could cushion shocks in badly affected regions, and labor mobility, which would allow workers from such regions to move to less affected ones. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: currency, Euro, Europe, Finanzkrise, Peterson, Project Syndicate, Subramanian | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 25. März 2013
Now we know at least which type of crisis it was (#3) hfk
Nicolas Véron, 25 March 2013, voxeu.
Senior Fellow, Bruegel; and Visiting Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics
The Monday morning Eurozone Cyprus bailout is now public, although details are scant. This column argues that this package cancels out some of the mistakes in last week’s package. Last week, the Troika should have vetoed the small-deposit tax and prepared a plan B for the Cypriot parliament’s rejection. Avoiding the risky scenario of a Cyprus exit will require further fiscal commitments from Eurozone partners. One possibility is a temporary, but EZ-wide, ‚deposit reinsurance‘, or backing of national deposit-guarantee schemes by the ESM.
The late Mike Mussa1 noted that “there are three types of financial crises:
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Banken, Cyprus, Euro, Europe, Finanzkrise, Peterson, Veron, voxeu | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 30. Oktober 2012
Senior Fellow, Bruegel; and Visiting Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Nicolas Véron, 29 October 2012, voxeu
Eurozone leaders are firmly committed to a banking union, at least on paper. But do Member States agree on the current proposals? And what do these proposals leave out? This column argues that a dangerous combination of disagreements between Member States over contentious issues and pitfalls in the design of new institutions may well ensnare the Eurozone along its faltering path towards recovery.
The leaders of Eurozone countries issued an unprecedented commitment on 29 June; the statement began, “[w]e affirm that it is imperative to break the vicious circle between banks and sovereigns” (Euro Area Leaders 2012). This statement officially acknowledged leaders’ intention to break the ‘doom loop’ of the mutually-reinforcing deterioration of credit conditions afflicting weaker member states such as Spain and the banks headquartered in them. Severing this feedback loop will require a transfer of vast parts of banking supervision and policy apparatus from national- to European-level in the form of a new banking union. This transfer is probably a prerequisite for maintaining the integrity of Europe’s monetary union in any crisis-resolution strategy. Of equal importance is that leaders’ failure to deliver on their pledge would severely impair investors’ already-damaged confidence in the ability of Eurozone governments to act collectively.
The action plan outlined in the June statement defines a sequence of two explicit steps.
- The ECB should first be endowed with broad supervisory powers and thus become the anchor of a ‘single supervisory mechanism’ for participating Member States.
- Once the single supervisory mechanism is deemed effective, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) – the Eurozone’s newly-established intervention fund – would be able to recapitalise banks directly. Corresponding instruments are yet to be clarified, but would probably include common equity.
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Banken, Banking Union, Bruegel, Euro, Europe, Finanzkrise, Peterson, Regulieren, voxeu | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 27. Oktober 2012
Research Analyst, Peterson Institute of International Economics
Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and Senior Research Professor at Johns Hopkins University
Arvind Subramanian, Martin Kessler, 27 October 2012, voxeu
As China becomes ever more important in the global economy, will its currency take on an international role? This column argues that in some sense, this is already happening – an increasing number of emerging-market currencies seem to track (co-move with) the renminbi – and the trend is set to continue.
The staggering economic rise of China in the last three decades leads to the question of the potential internationalisation of its currency, the renminbi (RMB). Internationalisation has different dimensions. An international currency is widely used in financial and trade transactions, and crucially it is used as a store of value. Some, like Eichengreen (2011) and Frankel (2011) see a potential global role for the RMB, provided important ancillary reforms to the domestic financial system and to the financial account first take place. In Eclipse, one of us projected that such a shift might happen in less than two decades (Subramanian 2011).
But there is a third dimension to an international currency: it serves as a unit of account or as a reference point for other currencies. We define a reference currency as one which exhibits a high degree of co-movement with other currencies. This co-movement could reflect either pegging choices by the government or be driven by market forces. In a new paper (Subramanian and Kessler 2012), we measure the co-movements of the US dollar, the euro, the RMB and the Japanese yen for a sample of 52 emerging market economies. We do that by following a methodology first applied by Frankel and Wei (1994): running a regression of each emerging market currency exchange rate (against the Swiss franc – which plays the role of a neutral numeraire) on this basket of four currencies (also against the Swiss franc). The coefficients on each of the major currencies are called “comovement coefficients” (CMCs), and measure the extent to which exchange rates movements are correlated with the four benchmark currencies. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: china, currency, Peterson, Yuan | Leave a Comment »
Posted by hkarner - 14. Oktober 2012
Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Perterson Institute, 13 October 2012
Youth unemployment in the Eurozone looks like a social and economic disaster in the making – 30%, 40%, even 50% of young people sitting on their hands instead of building skills and experience. This column argues the headline numbers are misleading. While youth unemployment is a serious problem, a large share of EZ youth are not in the labour force, so the headline figures overstate the labour-market ‘scar tissue’ that will be left over from the crisis.
Hardly a day goes by without a reminder of youth unemployment rates in excess of 50% in Greece, Spain, Italy, and other parts of the European periphery. Sometimes the reminders are in the form of rants by economists or pundits about the moral deficiency of EZ demands for austerity and the risks of a lost generation of young people. The challenge for Europe’s youth is stark, and demands for government action are long overdue, especially in liberalising the insider biases that make it hard for outsiders to get jobs.
The situation is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows youth unemployment rates in the 15- to 24-year age group in the OECD countries in Q1 2011, compared with the latest available data1.
Figure 1. OECD Harmonised Youth Unemployment Rates, 15-24y
Source: OECD Labour Market Statistics.
The current OECD average is 16%, with the US average marginally higher at 16.8%, while the UK and the EZ average lies around 22%. Meanwhile, the intra-EZ range is remarkable, with Germany at just 8%, the lowest youth unemployment rate in the OECD, and Spain and Greece exceeding 50% in the latest data. Moreover, youth unemployment rates have increased in the last 18 months in the OECD, and in the four ‚Club Med‘ EZ countries of Italy, Portugal, Spain and Greece. With these remarkable youth unemployment rates, it is striking how limited the social unrest has been. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »
Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: Europe, Finanzkrise, Kirkegard, Peterson, Unemployment, USA, Youth | Leave a Comment »