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Posts Tagged ‘Jobs’

HOW JOB INTERVIEWS WILL TRANSFORM IN THE NEXT DECADE

Posted by hkarner - 9. Januar 2020

Date: 08‑01‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal

Recruiters using AI and virtual‑reality simulations may hire based on a candidate’s behavior, personality traits and physiological responses—no resumes needed

Most job hunters and hiring managers would agree: An interview isn’t the ideal way to find the best person for the job. Applicants sometimes exaggerate their strengths; managers rely on subjective information to make decisions.

And the problem is growing, as rapid technological change forces companies to constantly adjust to new ways of working. Once‑indispensable hard skills or experience may be less and less predictive of a candidate’s chances of success on the job.

“If we accept the fact that jobs are going to be disrupted and replaced, and 80% of the jobs you will find in 2030 or 2040 don’t exist today, and there is a devaluation of expertise and knowledge, then you have to bet on things like curiosity, learning ability, people skills and motivation,” says Tomas Chamorro‑Premuzic, chief talent scientist at ManpowerGroup and a professor of business psychology at University College London and Columbia University.

In the not‑too‑distant future, employers may rely less on resumes and interviews and more on a candidate’s behavior, cognitive abilities, personality traits and physiological responses to decide whether someone is a good fit. Technology is already being developed to allow employers to analyze candidates’ online history, biometric data and real‑time reactions to simulated on‑the‑job challenges.

These technologies raise concerns about ethics and fairness, and experts predict they will prompt legal challenges. In November, the nonprofit Electronic Privacy Information Center filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission urging the agency to investigate HireVue, a company that builds artificial‑intelligence‑based hiring tools, over concerns that its technology is not transparent and lacks accountability. HireVue declined to comment on the complaint and said in a statement that its technology “has less bias than traditional screening processes.” An Illinois statute takes effect this month requiring companies to notify job candidates when they use AI‑based video interview tools. Legislation mandating companies inspect their algorithms for bias is under consideration in Congress.

Here, we take a look at the technologies that could reshape the job interview in the years ahead.

Personality Profiling—With the Help of AI

As soft skills gain importance, more employers will use AI to create personality profiles, generated from job candidates’ social‑media profiles, LinkedIn accounts and other text posted online, as well as the words they use in virtual‑reality simulations and video submissions.

A couple of vendors, including Humantic, already offer natural language processing‑based tools to create instant candidate profiles for recruiters and employers. The companies say that the technology is based on traditional personality tests, including DiSC, a behavioral assessment tool, and the Big Five, which measures five personality traits. Instead of applicants filling out long questionnaires, an algorithm creates a personality analysis instantly and affordably, the startups say—with or without someone’s consent.

In her work helping companies select candidates for leadership positions, Tracy Levine of Atlanta‑based Advantage Talent uses Humantic’s tool to find out whether candidates are open to new ideas. The tool helps her overcome her own biases, she says.

Some experts question whether these algorithms are as accurate as traditional methods. AI‑based tools could also find language in a candidate’s social‑media profiles indicating he or she has a medical condition, including depression. Organizational psychologists have argued that it would be unfair and possibly illegal for employers to use this information to make hiring decisions.

If personality profiling becomes more prevalent, a market for algorithms that assist applicants in burnishing their social‑media histories and other online accounts could spring up, according to Ben Taylor, former chief data scientist at HireVue. That could include advising job hunters on what to delete or change to conform to specific personality profiles, he says.

A ‘Credit Score’ for Skills

Currently, many employers rely on candidates’ own assessments to determine applicants’ levels of expertise. One day, companies could automatically score skills using the text that candidates put online, such as LinkedIn posts and Twitter interactions. Experts predict this might first be used to evaluate software engineers’ coding abilities, since they often post code directly to platforms like GitHub.

“Companies will probably start offering certifications for various skills more often because it is becoming a bigger problem: I can claim I have a skill, I don’t have to prove it,” says Tara Behrend, an organizational psychology professor at George Washington University.

On hard skills such as programming and soft skills such as communication abilities, candidates could seek out or receive a number like a credit score. “You are going to see this whole market that does not really exist today,” says Mr. Taylor. “Candidates want it. They want to come across as a very competitive hire.”

Jenny Yang, a fellow at the Urban Institute and former commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, compared the experience to using a person’s high school SAT score to make hiring decisions throughout his or her life. “It does worry me some to think about static things that are hard to change—they are often correlated with wealth,” she says.

Testing Job Performance—Virtually

Employers are already using VR for on‑the‑job testing, training and diversity initiatives. Israel‑based ActiView offers VR assessments for hiring, particularly for recent graduates with shorter resumes.

Israel‑based ActiView offers virtual‑reality assessments for hiring. This test measures cognitive abilities, personality attributes and work methods including time management, attention to detail and tenacity, the company says.

In a typical assessment, a candidate plays a cognitive game while wearing a headset and the system analyzes the person’s behavioral patterns. “Do you strategize before you start solving something or not so much? How decisive are you in your actions?” says Gil Asher, the company’s chief technology officer. Then the job seeker faces simulations of problems he or she might encounter on the job. “If it’s a customer‑service candidate, we put them in front of an angry customer and see how they react,” says Mr. Asher.

Other makers of VR assessment tools are hesitant to use them for hiring decisions because some applicants experience vertigo or motion sickness while wearing headsets.

“You have to be very careful when you are designing an assessment that you are giving people a level playing field,” says Doug Reynolds, executive vice president at Development Dimensions International, which develops assessment tools and VR systems to build empathy in the workplace.

ActiView says it uses advanced headsets and conducts stationary VR tests, reducing vertigo. If job candidates still have problems, they can request an alternative test.

Companies such as HireVue test candidates using video simulations, and use algorithms to determine who’s a good fit. Its clients have included Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc., Unilever PLC and other Fortune 500 companies. (Unilever declined to comment. Hilton said in a statement that it has used HireVue’s predictive assessment tools in the past as “one data point among many” that its recruiters use to make hiring decisions.)

The Right Brain for the Job

In the next five years, wearable health technology will be able to measure blood pressure, eye movements and skin conductivity, or how well skin transfers electricity, to predict arousal and anxiety, computer scientists say. These technologies could help companies assess job seekers’ stress and engagement levels and self‑regulation skills during VR simulations.

The systems might even be able to monitor brain waves, some experts say, to figure out whether someone has the optimal brain for a job based on the brain structures of employees who are successful in the role.

But it’s difficult to correctly interpret biometric data. Even if you can detect brain waves, “are they for stress or are they more deep thinking?” says Santosh Kumar, a computer science professor at the University of Memphis, who develops wearable health technology.

Biometric information could also reveal medical issues, such as heart conditions, mental illnesses or disabilities—which could be illegal.

“If something is an accurate predictor or a valid signal, but it is beyond people’s control, I think the level of fairness is questionable,” says Dr. Chamorro‑Premuzic.

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Europe’s New Jobs Lack Old Guarantees—Stoking Workers’ Discontent

Posted by hkarner - 19. November 2019

Date: 18-11-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal

Unemployment in Europe is at its lowest level in a generation, but workers complain about lack of benefits, security

Yoann Perrotin, outside Grenoble. His temporary work contract with a bank wasn’t renewed, making it difficult to plan or buy a home.

By Daniel Michaels in St. Ismier, France and Paul Hannon in London

Europe’s job market is booming. So why are so many workers so angry?

Unemployment in Europe is at its lowest level in a generation. Ten million more people have jobs today than before the financial crisis a decade ago. Demand for workers remains high, with more job openings than ever before across the European Union. Of the 22 EU countries that have a minimum wage, all but Latvia raised theirs last year.

Yet behind the numbers is a shift that is changing Europe. A growing proportion of new jobs are part-time, temporary or self-employed positions that lack the benefits that European workers have long expected. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The Lesson I Learned from Steve Jobs

Posted by hkarner - 13. Oktober 2019

Date: 12-10-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal By Marc Benioff

A challenge from technology’s greatest showman led Marc Benioff to a breakthrough insight about how to find true innovation at Salesforce.com.

Long before Marc Benioff became CEO of Salesforce.com, one of the first companies to deliver enterprise software to customers as a subscription over the internet, he was a summer intern at Apple in 1984. That’s where he met Steve Jobs.

I first met Steve Jobs in 1984 when Apple Inc. hired me as a summer intern. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The AI Road to Serfdom?

Posted by hkarner - 25. Februar 2019

Robert Skidelsky, Professor Emeritus of Political Economy at Warwick University and a fellow of the British Academy in history and economics, is a member of the British House of Lords. The author of a three-volume biography of John Maynard Keynes, he began his political career in the Labour party, became the Conservative Party’s spokesman for Treasury affairs in the House of Lords, and was eventually forced out of the Conservative Party for his opposition to NATO’s intervention in Kosovo in 1999.

Estimates of job losses in the near future due to automation range from 9% to 47%, and jobs themselves are becoming ever more precarious. Should we trust the conventional economic narrative according to which machines inevitably raise workers‘ living standards?

LONDON – Surveys from round the world show that people want secure jobs. At the same time, they have always dreamed of a life free from toil. The “rise of the robots” has made the tension between these impulses palpable.

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Studie zu Arbeitskräftebedarf Deutschland braucht 260.000 Zuwanderer pro Jahr

Posted by hkarner - 13. Februar 2019

Auch bei der Rente mit 70 und einer höheren Geburtenrate kommt der deutsche Arbeitsmarkt nicht ohne Fachkräfte aus dem Ausland aus, ergibt eine Studie der Bertelsmann Stiftung. Jährlich müssten deshalb 260.000 Menschen zuziehen.

Dienstag, 12.02.2019 10:42 Uhr, spiegel.online

Um den Arbeitskräftebedarf der Wirtschaft zu decken, braucht Deutschlandeiner Studie zufolge in den nächsten 40 Jahren jährlich netto mindestens 260.000 Einwanderer. Ohne Migration werde das Angebot an Arbeitskräften angesichts der alternden Gesellschaft bis zum Jahr 2060 um rund 16 Millionen Personen – also um fast ein Drittel – massiv schrumpfen, schreiben die Forscher.
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Bei der Ermittlung der Zuwandererzahl seien auch Potenziale der in Deutschland lebenden Arbeitskräfte eingerechnet worden, betonen sie. So seien eine höhere Geburtenrate sowie eine steigende Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen und Männern bereits berücksichtigt. „Doch selbst wenn Männer und Frauen gleich viel arbeiteten und in Deutschland eine Rente mit 70 eingeführt würde, könnte der Fachkräftebedarf nicht mit inländischen Mitteln gedeckt werden“, schreibt die Bertelsmann-Stiftung als Auftraggeber der Studie. Deren Zahlen basieren auf Berechnungen des Instituts für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) und der Hochschule Coburg. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Bei Hard Brexit wackeln 6.000 Jobs in Österreich

Posted by hkarner - 11. Februar 2019

10. Februar 2019, 16:57 deerstandard.at

Deutscher IWH-Ökonom: „In Österreich könnten direkt 2.000 und indirekt 4.000 Arbeitsplätze betroffen sein“

Wien – Ein ungeregelter EU-Ausstieg der Briten bedroht einer Studie zufolge rund 6.000 heimische Arbeitsplätze. „In Österreich könnten direkt 2.000 und indirekt 4.000 Arbeitsplätze betroffen sein“, sagte der deutsche Studienautor Oliver Holtemöller auf APA-Anfrage. Über die Untersuchung des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) und der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg berichtete zuvor die „Welt am Sonntag“. Holtemöller ist stellvertretender IWH-Präsident und Universitätsprofessor für Volkswirtschaftslehre an der Universität Halle-Wittenberg.

Deutschland und Frankreich stark betroffen

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The Good Jobs Challenge

Posted by hkarner - 8. Februar 2019

Dani Rodrik is Professor of International Political Economy at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. He is the author of The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy, Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science, and, most recently, Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy.

Every economy in the world today is divided between an advanced segment, typically globally integrated, employing a minority of the labor force, and a low-productivity segment that absorbs the bulk of the workforce, often at low wages and under poor conditions. How should policymakers address this dualism?

CAMBRIDGE – Around the world today, the central challenge for achieving inclusive economic prosperity is the creation of sufficient numbers of “good jobs.” Without productive and dependable employment for the vast majority of a country’s workforce, economic growth either remains elusive, or its benefits end up concentrated among a tiny minority. The scarcity of good jobs also undermines trust in political elites, adding fuel to the authoritarian, nativist backlash affecting many countries today.

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China’s Digital Dividend

Posted by hkarner - 7. Februar 2019

By Longmei Zhang and Sally Chen

Digitalization has created millions of new jobs in China, accounting for between one-third and one-half of employment growth in the world’s second-largest economy.

Our Chart of the Week shows employment in two sectors: information and communications technology (ICT) and retailing. ICT added 14 million new jobs for high-skilled workers in the five years through 2016, and the average wage doubled.

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The ‘Hybrid’ Skills That Tomorrow’s Jobs Will Require

Posted by hkarner - 22. Januar 2019

Date: 21-01-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal

Jobs that tap both technical and creative thinking will be likely to pay well—and resist automation

Jobs that require once-unrelated skills are forecast to grow faster than overall employment.

Left brain, meet right brain. Go forth and prosper.

That could be the new formula for a successful career.

Here’s why. The human brain, that extraordinary computer, is divided into two hemispheres, each responsible for different skill sets. The left brain is popularly associated with logic and analytic thought; the right, with intuition and creativity.

But many of the good jobs of the future, according to some employment experts, will require being good at using both sides of the brain.

To some extent, that future is already here. Jobs that tap both technical and creative thinking include mobile-app developers and bioinformaticians, and represent some of the fastest-growing and highest-paying occupations, according to a new report from Burning Glass Technologies, a labor-market analytics firm in Boston. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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An entertaining polemic against the tech industry

Posted by hkarner - 19. Januar 2019

Date: 17-01-2019
Source: The Economist

Ping-pong tables are no substitute for job security

Lab Rats: Why Modern Work Makes People Miserable. By Dan Lyons.Hachette Books; 272 pages; $28. Atlantic Books; £16.99.

Newton’s third law is that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The titans of technology have amassed great wealth but, like investment bankers before them, they have discovered that this does not bring them popularity. The past few years have witnessed a “techlash” on a wide range of issues, including the way technology invades citizens’ privacy.

Dan Lyons, a journalist who spent time working in the industry, has written an entertaining, if scattergun, attack on one aspect of technology’s influence—the effect it has had on everybody’s working lives. He argues that the industry has reduced real wages, made workers feel dehumanised and less secure, and exposed them to constant, stress-inducing change. Tellingly, the proportion of Americans who are happy with their jobs dropped from 61% in 1987 to 51% in 2016.

A particular target for his ire is the startup technology company. With their sweet-dispensers and ping-pong tables, they may give the appearance of friendliness. But in the author’s experience, such firms are associated with very high staff turnover, especially in sales and marketing. They tend to be marked by a brutal management style; Mr Lyons was told not only that he was failing, but that his fellow workers didn’t like him. “Most startups,” he writes, “are terribly managed, half-assed outfits run by buffoons and bozos and frat boys.” Worse still, they offer little job security because of the way they operate. “All they have is a not-very-innovative business model; they sell dollar bills for 75 cents and take credit for how fast they’re growing.” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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