Föhrenbergkreis Finanzwirtschaft

Unkonventionelle Lösungen für eine zukunftsfähige Gesellschaft

Posts Tagged ‘Education’

Wann kommt der technologiebedingte Umbruch in der höheren Bildung?

Posted by hkarner - 6. Februar 2018

Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Harvard University and recipient of the 2011 Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics, was the chief economist of the International Monetary Fund from 2001 to 2003. The co-author of This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, his new book, The Curse of Cash, was released in August 2016.

CAMBRIDGE – Zu Beginn des Internet-Zeitalters in den frühen 1990er Jahren schien eine Explosion akademischer Produktivität in Reichweite. Doch es kam nichts. Stattdessen entwickeln sich die Lehrmethoden an Hochschulen und Universitäten – wo man sich rühmt, massenhaft kreative Ideen zur Modernisierung der Gesellschaft hervorzubringen – weiterhin im Schneckentempo.

Freilich haben PowerPoint-Präsentationen die Wandtafel abgelöst, „offene Online-Vorlesungen” verzeichnen oftmals mehr als 100.000 Anmeldungen (obwohl die Zahl der wirklich engagierten Studierenden tendenziell weit geringer ist) und in so genannten „Flipped Classrooms“ treten aufgezeichnete Unterrichtseinheiten an die Stelle von Hausaufgaben, während die Zeit im Klassenzimmer mit der Diskussion dieser Hausaufgaben verbracht wird. Doch angesichts der zentralen Rolle der Bildung bei der Steigerung der Produktivität stellt sich die Frage, ob sich die Bemühungen zur Wiederbelebung der sklerotischen westlichen Ökonomien nicht auf die Neuerfindung der höheren Bildung konzentrieren sollten.

Man kann verstehen, warum sich der Wandel in der Grund- und Sekundarstufe, wo man mit massiven sozialen und politischen Hindernissen zu kämpfen hat, so langsam vollzieht. Aber Hochschulen und Universitäten verfügen über viel umfangreichere Möglichkeiten für Experimente; tatsächlich ist das in vielerlei Hinsicht ihr Daseinszweck. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Die gebrochenen Versprechen des Westens zur Bildungshilfe

Posted by hkarner - 19. Januar 2018

Jeffrey D. Sachs, Professor of Sustainable Development and Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University, is Director of Columbia’s Center for Sustainable Development and of the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network. His books include The End of Poverty, Common Wealth, The Age of Sustainable Development, and, most recently, Building the New American Economy.

NEW YORK – Die Global Partnership for Education (GPE), eine lobenswerte und fähige Initiative zur Ausbildungsförderung in 65 einkommensschwachen Ländern, durchläuft derzeit, was im Sprachgebrauch der Entwicklungshilfe als „Auffüllungsrunde“ bezeichnet wird; d. h., sie bittet Spenderregierungen, ihre Kasse wieder aufzustocken. Die Tatsache freilich, dass die GPE um lediglich eine Milliarde Dollar pro Jahr – bloße Almosen – bittet, entlarvt die Farce der Zusagen westlicher Regierungen zur globalen Bildungsagenda Education for All.

USA und Europäische Union haben von dieser Agenda nie viel gehalten. Im Bereich der Gesundheit waren sie manchmal zu Investitionen bereit, um Epidemien wie AIDS, Malaria und Ebola einzudämmen oder zu stoppen, um einerseits Leben zu retten und andererseits zu verhindern, dass diese Krankheiten ihre eigenen Länder erreichen. Doch was die Bildung angeht, sind viele westliche Länder stärker daran interessiert, Mauern und Internierungslager zu errichten als Schulen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Pakistan is home to the most frenetic education reforms in the world

Posted by hkarner - 9. Januar 2018

Date: 08-01-2018
Source: The Economist

Reformers are trying to make up for generations of neglect

EVERY three months, Shahbaz Sharif, the chief minister of Punjab, gathers education officials around a large rectangular table. The biggest of Pakistan’s four provinces, larger in terms of population (110m) than all but 11 countries, Punjab is reforming its schools at a pace rarely seen anywhere in the world. In April 2016, as part of its latest scheme, private providers took over the running of 1,000 of the government’s primary schools. Today the number is 4,300. By the end of this year, Mr Sharif has decreed, it will be 10,000. The quarterly “stocktakes” are his chance to hear what progress is being made towards this and other targets—and whether the radical overhaul is having any effect.

For officials it can be a tough ride. Leaders of struggling districts are called to Lahore for what Allah Bakhsh Malik, Punjab’s education secretary, calls a “pep talk”. Asked what that entails, he responds: “Four words: F-I-R-E. It is survival of the fittest.” About 30% of district heads have been sacked for poor results in the past nine months, says Mr Malik. “We are working at Punjabi speed.” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Rethinking Education

Posted by hkarner - 23. Oktober 2017

October 22, 2017

This week’s letter will be more like an Outside the Box than a Thoughts from the Frontline. I am feeling under the weather, and while I can read and move around somewhat, I am really not thinking all that well and am not up to wasting your time writing a letter that neither you nor I will be happy with.

Thankfully, my friend Peter Diamandis sent a letter detailing his vision of the future of education, and I want to share it with you. I have been struck by the number of times in the last year when, as I begin to talk about the problems our society will face in the coming years – especially as regards the future of work –someone says “The answer is more education.”

I don’t want to be glib, but our educational system is largely a failure in producing children and young adults ready for the future. Why we would think that more of that would be useful? What we need to do is completely rethink the whole concept of what we call education. I will admit to being somewhat at a loss, having read many treatises and essays on changing education, but finding nothing that really brings it together. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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20.000 Euro für jeden jungen Menschen

Posted by hkarner - 5. Oktober 2017

Der deutsche Top-Ökonom Marcel Fratzscher im Interview zu Armut, Grundeinkommen und Chancen für die Jungen.

, kurier.at

KURIER: Sie haben kürzlich gesagt, dass die soziale Ungleichheit in Europa ein Ausmaß angenommen hat, das schon konkreten wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Schaden anrichtet. Haben Sie ein konkretes Beispiel dafür?
Marcel Fratzscher: Ja, die Armutsrisikoquote, also die Menschen, die weniger als 60 Prozent des mittleren Einkommens in Deutschland haben. Anfang der 2000er-Jahre war diese Quote bei zehn Prozent, jetzt ist sie bei 16 bis 17 Prozent. Das heißt, dass praktisch jeder Siebente in Deutschland von Armut gefährdet ist.

Wie definieren Sie diese Armutsgefährdung?

Es geht nicht darum, ein Dach über dem Kopf zu haben. Es geht um die soziale und wirtschaftliche Teilhabe, also ins Theater gehen, auf ein Eis gehen, durch Reisen neue Horizonte entdecken, zum Kindergeburtstag ein Geschenk mitbringen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Capitalizing on Africa’s Youth Dividend

Posted by hkarner - 21. Juli 2017

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Schools, Skills and Economic Growth

Posted by hkarner - 11. März 2017

Posted on by iMFdirect

By  iMFdirect

Eric Hanushek is an expert on the relationship between education and economics, and he says the only thing that matters for a country is the skills of its people.

“Countries that have lots of skills grow faster than countries that have low skills, and that’s an easy way to explain what’s going on in Africa and Latin America, where the skills are very low, and the countries are just not growing in the long run.”

Hanushek is the Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. In this podcast, he says the methods used for testing skills have been around for decades.

“What we’ve had for the last 50 years is a set of international tests of skills in math and science.  So you take a math problem and walk it around the world and see how different countries do.” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Retraining low-skilled workers

Posted by hkarner - 15. Januar 2017

Date: 12-01-2017
Source: The Economist

Systems for continuous reskilling threaten to buttress inequality

IMAGINE YOU ARE a 45-year-old long-distance lorry driver. You never enjoyed school and left as soon as you could, with a smattering of qualifications and no great love of learning. The job is tiring and solitary, but it does at least seem to offer decent job security: driver shortages are a perennial complaint in the industry, and the average age of the workforce is high (48 in Britain), so the shortfalls are likely to get worse. America’s Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) says there were 1.8m truckers in 2014 and expects a 5% rise in their number by 2024. “As the economy grows, the demand for goods will increase and more truck drivers will be needed to keep supply chains moving,” predicts the BLS website, chirpily.

But the future might unfold very differently. For all the excitement over self-driving passenger cars, the freight industry is likely to adopt autonomous vehicles even faster. And according to a report in 2014 by Morgan Stanley, a bank, full automation might reduce the pool of American truck drivers by two-thirds. Those projections came hedged with caveats, and rightly so. The pace of adoption may be slowed by regulation. Drivers may still be needed to deal with unforeseen problems; if such jobs require more technical knowledge, they may even pay better. Employment in other sectors may grow as freight costs come down. But there is a chance that in the not too distant future a very large number of truckers will find themselves redundant. The implications are immense. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Alternative providers of education must solve the problems of cost and credentials

Posted by hkarner - 14. Januar 2017

Date: 12-01-2017
Source: The Economist
Subject: Established education providers v new contenders

THE HYPE OVER MOOCs peaked in 2012. Salman Khan, an investment analyst who had begun teaching bite-sized lessons to his cousin in New Orleans over the internet and turned that activity into a wildly popular educational resource called the Khan Academy, was splashed on the cover of Forbes. Sebastian Thrun, the founder of another MOOC called Udacity, predicted in an interview in Wired magazine that within 50 years the number of universities would collapse to just ten worldwide. The New York Times declared it the year of the MOOC.

The sheer numbers of people flocking to some of the initial courses seemed to suggest that an entirely new model of open-access, free university education was within reach. Now MOOC sceptics are more numerous than believers. Although lots of people still sign up, drop-out rates are sky-high.

moocNonetheless, the MOOCs are on to something. Education, like health care, is a complex and fragmented industry, which makes it hard to gain scale. Despite those drop-out rates, the MOOCs have shown it can be done quickly and comparatively cheaply. The Khan Academy has 14m-15m users who conduct at least one learning activity with it each month; Coursera has 22m registered learners. Those numbers are only going to grow. FutureLearn, a MOOC owned by Britain’s Open University, has big plans. Oxford University announced in November that it would be producing its first MOOC on the edX platform. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Equipping people to stay ahead of technological change

Posted by hkarner - 12. Januar 2017

Date: 12-01-2017
Source: The Economist
Subject: Learning and earning

It is easy to say that people need to keep learning throughout their careers. The practicalities are daunting

WHEN education fails to keep pace with technology, the result is inequality.
Without the skills to stay useful as innovations arrive, workers suffer—and if enough of them fall behind, society starts to fall apart. That fundamental insight seized reformers in the Industrial Revolution, heralding state-funded universal schooling. Later, automation in factories and offices called forth a surge in college graduates. The combination of education and innovation, spread over decades, led to a remarkable flowering of prosperity.

Today robotics and artificial intelligence call for another education revolution. This time, however, working lives are so lengthy and so fast-changing that simply cramming more schooling in at the start is not enough. People must also be able to acquire new skills throughout their careers. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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