Föhrenbergkreis Finanzwirtschaft

Unkonventionelle Lösungen für eine zukunftsfähige Gesellschaft

Posts Tagged ‘Education’

DNA tests for IQ are coming, but it might not be smart to take one

Posted by hkarner - 3. April 2018

Date: 02-04-2018
Source: Technology Review

Scientists have linked hundreds of genes to intelligence.
One psychologist says it’s time to test school kids.

Ready for a world in which a $50 DNA test can predict your odds of earning a PhD or forecast which toddler gets into a selective preschool?

Robert Plomin, a behavioral geneticist, says that’s exactly what’s coming.

For decades genetic researchers have sought the hereditary factors behind intelligence, with little luck. But now gene studies have finally gotten big enough—and hence powerful enough—to zero in on genetic differences linked to IQ.

A year ago, no gene had ever been tied to performance on an IQ test. Since then, more than 500 have, thanks to gene studies involving more than 200,000 test takers. Results from an experiment correlating one million people’s DNA with their academic success are due at any time.

The discoveries mean we can now read the DNA of a young child and get a notion of how intelligent he or she will be, says Plomin, an American based at King’s College London, where he leads a long-term study of 13,000 pairs of British twins. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »


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Macron’s Education Revolution

Posted by hkarner - 8. März 2018

Philippe Aghion

Philippe Aghion is a professor at the Collège de France and at the London School of Economics, and a fellow of the Econometric Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Benedicte Berner is a lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris, chair of Civil Rights Defenders, and an associate at Harvard University’s Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies.

French President Emmanuel Macron has drawn fire for his pro-growth economic reforms, which some critics have characterized as giveaways to corporations and the wealthy. But, when considered in full, Macron’s agenda is clearly aimed at reducing inequality and boosting social mobility.

PARIS – Since eliminating a wealth tax and imposing a flat tax on capital gains, French President Emmanuel Macron opponents have quite maliciously compared him to US President Donald Trump, who slashed taxes for the wealthiest Americans in December. Some of his harshest critics even refer to Macron as a “president for the rich.”

Nothing could be further from the truth. Viewed in full, Macron’s reform agenda offers a new and promising approach to tackling inequality and social immobility in France. And, at any rate, the United States and France are hardly comparable on these issues. Although income inequality has increased in France since 1990, it remains well below that of other developed countries. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Why governments have overestimated the economic returns of higher education

Posted by hkarner - 4. März 2018

Date: 02-03-2018
Source: The Economist

Earning a degree is about signalling, and not just learning

AUTOMATION and globalisation have brought drastic changes to Western labour markets. Middle-skilled jobs are disappearing fast. In America, wages for blue-collar workers have been largely stagnant since the 1970s, whereas those for university graduates have soared. Silicon Valley types frequently warn that advances in technology, especially in artificial intelligence, will be devastating for low-skilled workers. One prominent study, by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne of Oxford University, estimated that 47% of jobs in America could be automated over the next two decades. The spectre of mass unemployment, along with increasing levels of income equality, has led many policymakers to see investment in university as crucial for economic prosperity.

Governments have plenty of reason to be bullish about higher education. Perhaps the best piece of evidence they have of the wisdom of investing more in universities is the graduate-wage premium—the difference in wages between those with university degrees and those without. In their book “The Race between Education and Technology”, Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz of Harvard University point out that this premium fell during the first half of the 20th century in America as universities expanded enrolment, but started rising sharply around 1980. Although the premium has started to level off in recent years, the fact that university graduates still make around 70% more than non-graduates suggests that demand for skilled workers still far exceeds supply. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Wann kommt der technologiebedingte Umbruch in der höheren Bildung?

Posted by hkarner - 6. Februar 2018

Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Harvard University and recipient of the 2011 Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics, was the chief economist of the International Monetary Fund from 2001 to 2003. The co-author of This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, his new book, The Curse of Cash, was released in August 2016.

CAMBRIDGE – Zu Beginn des Internet-Zeitalters in den frühen 1990er Jahren schien eine Explosion akademischer Produktivität in Reichweite. Doch es kam nichts. Stattdessen entwickeln sich die Lehrmethoden an Hochschulen und Universitäten – wo man sich rühmt, massenhaft kreative Ideen zur Modernisierung der Gesellschaft hervorzubringen – weiterhin im Schneckentempo.

Freilich haben PowerPoint-Präsentationen die Wandtafel abgelöst, „offene Online-Vorlesungen” verzeichnen oftmals mehr als 100.000 Anmeldungen (obwohl die Zahl der wirklich engagierten Studierenden tendenziell weit geringer ist) und in so genannten „Flipped Classrooms“ treten aufgezeichnete Unterrichtseinheiten an die Stelle von Hausaufgaben, während die Zeit im Klassenzimmer mit der Diskussion dieser Hausaufgaben verbracht wird. Doch angesichts der zentralen Rolle der Bildung bei der Steigerung der Produktivität stellt sich die Frage, ob sich die Bemühungen zur Wiederbelebung der sklerotischen westlichen Ökonomien nicht auf die Neuerfindung der höheren Bildung konzentrieren sollten.

Man kann verstehen, warum sich der Wandel in der Grund- und Sekundarstufe, wo man mit massiven sozialen und politischen Hindernissen zu kämpfen hat, so langsam vollzieht. Aber Hochschulen und Universitäten verfügen über viel umfangreichere Möglichkeiten für Experimente; tatsächlich ist das in vielerlei Hinsicht ihr Daseinszweck. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Die gebrochenen Versprechen des Westens zur Bildungshilfe

Posted by hkarner - 19. Januar 2018

Jeffrey D. Sachs, Professor of Sustainable Development and Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University, is Director of Columbia’s Center for Sustainable Development and of the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network. His books include The End of Poverty, Common Wealth, The Age of Sustainable Development, and, most recently, Building the New American Economy.

NEW YORK – Die Global Partnership for Education (GPE), eine lobenswerte und fähige Initiative zur Ausbildungsförderung in 65 einkommensschwachen Ländern, durchläuft derzeit, was im Sprachgebrauch der Entwicklungshilfe als „Auffüllungsrunde“ bezeichnet wird; d. h., sie bittet Spenderregierungen, ihre Kasse wieder aufzustocken. Die Tatsache freilich, dass die GPE um lediglich eine Milliarde Dollar pro Jahr – bloße Almosen – bittet, entlarvt die Farce der Zusagen westlicher Regierungen zur globalen Bildungsagenda Education for All.

USA und Europäische Union haben von dieser Agenda nie viel gehalten. Im Bereich der Gesundheit waren sie manchmal zu Investitionen bereit, um Epidemien wie AIDS, Malaria und Ebola einzudämmen oder zu stoppen, um einerseits Leben zu retten und andererseits zu verhindern, dass diese Krankheiten ihre eigenen Länder erreichen. Doch was die Bildung angeht, sind viele westliche Länder stärker daran interessiert, Mauern und Internierungslager zu errichten als Schulen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Pakistan is home to the most frenetic education reforms in the world

Posted by hkarner - 9. Januar 2018

Date: 08-01-2018
Source: The Economist

Reformers are trying to make up for generations of neglect

EVERY three months, Shahbaz Sharif, the chief minister of Punjab, gathers education officials around a large rectangular table. The biggest of Pakistan’s four provinces, larger in terms of population (110m) than all but 11 countries, Punjab is reforming its schools at a pace rarely seen anywhere in the world. In April 2016, as part of its latest scheme, private providers took over the running of 1,000 of the government’s primary schools. Today the number is 4,300. By the end of this year, Mr Sharif has decreed, it will be 10,000. The quarterly “stocktakes” are his chance to hear what progress is being made towards this and other targets—and whether the radical overhaul is having any effect.

For officials it can be a tough ride. Leaders of struggling districts are called to Lahore for what Allah Bakhsh Malik, Punjab’s education secretary, calls a “pep talk”. Asked what that entails, he responds: “Four words: F-I-R-E. It is survival of the fittest.” About 30% of district heads have been sacked for poor results in the past nine months, says Mr Malik. “We are working at Punjabi speed.” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Rethinking Education

Posted by hkarner - 23. Oktober 2017

October 22, 2017

This week’s letter will be more like an Outside the Box than a Thoughts from the Frontline. I am feeling under the weather, and while I can read and move around somewhat, I am really not thinking all that well and am not up to wasting your time writing a letter that neither you nor I will be happy with.

Thankfully, my friend Peter Diamandis sent a letter detailing his vision of the future of education, and I want to share it with you. I have been struck by the number of times in the last year when, as I begin to talk about the problems our society will face in the coming years – especially as regards the future of work –someone says “The answer is more education.”

I don’t want to be glib, but our educational system is largely a failure in producing children and young adults ready for the future. Why we would think that more of that would be useful? What we need to do is completely rethink the whole concept of what we call education. I will admit to being somewhat at a loss, having read many treatises and essays on changing education, but finding nothing that really brings it together. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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20.000 Euro für jeden jungen Menschen

Posted by hkarner - 5. Oktober 2017

Der deutsche Top-Ökonom Marcel Fratzscher im Interview zu Armut, Grundeinkommen und Chancen für die Jungen.

, kurier.at

KURIER: Sie haben kürzlich gesagt, dass die soziale Ungleichheit in Europa ein Ausmaß angenommen hat, das schon konkreten wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Schaden anrichtet. Haben Sie ein konkretes Beispiel dafür?
Marcel Fratzscher: Ja, die Armutsrisikoquote, also die Menschen, die weniger als 60 Prozent des mittleren Einkommens in Deutschland haben. Anfang der 2000er-Jahre war diese Quote bei zehn Prozent, jetzt ist sie bei 16 bis 17 Prozent. Das heißt, dass praktisch jeder Siebente in Deutschland von Armut gefährdet ist.

Wie definieren Sie diese Armutsgefährdung?

Es geht nicht darum, ein Dach über dem Kopf zu haben. Es geht um die soziale und wirtschaftliche Teilhabe, also ins Theater gehen, auf ein Eis gehen, durch Reisen neue Horizonte entdecken, zum Kindergeburtstag ein Geschenk mitbringen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Capitalizing on Africa’s Youth Dividend

Posted by hkarner - 21. Juli 2017

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Schools, Skills and Economic Growth

Posted by hkarner - 11. März 2017

Posted on by iMFdirect

By  iMFdirect

Eric Hanushek is an expert on the relationship between education and economics, and he says the only thing that matters for a country is the skills of its people.

“Countries that have lots of skills grow faster than countries that have low skills, and that’s an easy way to explain what’s going on in Africa and Latin America, where the skills are very low, and the countries are just not growing in the long run.”

Hanushek is the Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. In this podcast, he says the methods used for testing skills have been around for decades.

“What we’ve had for the last 50 years is a set of international tests of skills in math and science.  So you take a math problem and walk it around the world and see how different countries do.” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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