Föhrenbergkreis Finanzwirtschaft

Unkonventionelle Lösungen für eine zukunftsfähige Gesellschaft

Posts Tagged ‘Democracy’

The Exploitation Time Bomb

Posted by hkarner - 17. Juli 2019

Jayati Ghosh is Professor of Economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, Executive Secretary of International Development Economics Associates, and a member of the Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation.

Worsening economic inequality in recent years is largely the result of policy choices that reflect the political influence and lobbying power of the rich. There is now a self-reinforcing pattern of high profits, low investment, and rising inequality – posing a threat not only to economic growth, but also to democracy.

NEW DELHI – Since reducing inequality became an official goal of the international community, income disparities have widened. This trend, typically blamed on trade liberalization and technological advances that have weakened the bargaining power of labor vis-à-vis capital, has generated a political backlash in many countries, with voters blaming their economic plight on “others” rather than on national policies. And such sentiments of course merely aggravate social tensions without addressing the root causes of worsening inequality.

Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Democracy Demotion

Posted by hkarner - 13. Juni 2019

Date: 12-06-2019
Source: Foreign Affairs By Larry Diamond

How the Freedom Agenda Fell Apart

For three decades beginning in the mid-1970s, the world experienced a remarkable expansion of democracy—the so-called third wave—with authoritarian regimes falling or reforming across the world. By 1993, a majority of states with populations over one million had become democracies. Levels of freedom, as measured by Freedom House, were steadily rising as well. In most years between 1991 and 2005, many more countries gained freedom than lost it.

But around 2006, the forward momentum of democracy came to a halt. In every year since 2007, many more countries have seen their freedom decrease than have seen it increase, reversing the post–Cold War trend. The rule of law has taken a severe and sustained beating, particularly in Africa and the postcommunist states; civil liberties and electoral rights have also been declining.

Adding to the problem, democracies have been expiring in big and strategically important countries. Russian President Vladimir Putin, for example, has long been using the power granted to him through elections to destroy democracy in Russia. More recently, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has gone down a similar path. Elected executives have been the principal agents of democratic destruction in some countries; in others, the military has. The generals seized control of the government in Egypt in 2013 and in Thailand in 2014, and they continue to wield de facto power in Myanmar and Pakistan. Across Africa, the trend has been for elected autocrats, such as President Uhuru Kenyatta of Kenya and President John Magufuli of Tanzania, to manipulate elections, subvert independent institutions, and harass critics and political opponentsto ensure their continued grip on power. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Books | Verschlagwortet mit: , , | Leave a Comment »

Kapitalismus geht auch ohne Demokratie

Posted by hkarner - 8. Juni 2019

Date: 07-06-2019
Source: Die Zeit

Der demokratische Kapitalismus westlicher Prägung könnte zum Auslaufmodell werden. China zeigt der Welt gerade, wie eine datengetriebene Planwirtschaft funktioniert.

Ein Essay von Thomas Beschorner, Miriam Meckel und Léa Steinacker

China zeigt der Welt, dass für einen funktionierenden Kapitalismus keine demokratischen Strukturen notwendig sind.

Thomas Beschorner ist Professor für Wirtschaftsethik und Direktor des Instituts für Wirtschaftsethik der Universität St.Gallen. Miriam Meckel ist Professorin für Kommunikationsmanagement an der Universität St.Gallen sowie Gründungsverlegerin der Digitalplattform ada. Léa Steinacker ist Chief Strategy Officer von ada.

Es gibt die Hoffnung, dass der Kapitalismus in naher Zukunft durch ein besseres System abgelöst werden könnte. Und es gibt die Hoffnung, dass er endlich wieder zu seinen Wurzeln der reinen freien Märkte zurückkehren könnte. Welche der beiden Position man auch immer bevorzugt – es gibt noch eine dritte Variante: die Revitalisierung der Planwirtschaft auf Datenbasis. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

The Global Crisis of Democracy

Posted by hkarner - 19. Mai 2019

Date: 18-05-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal By Larry Diamond

As China and Russia attack free governments and push strongman rule, the U.S. has gone silent—and a new tide of authoritarianism is gathering.

There is nothing inevitable about the expansion of democracy. Among countries with populations above one million, there were only 11 democracies in 1900, 20 in 1920 and 29 in 1974. Only for the past quarter of a century has democracy been the world’s predominant form of government. By 1993, the number of democracies had exploded to 77—representing, for the first time in history, a majority of countries with at least one million people. By 2006, the number of democracies had ticked up to 86.

But we are now at a precarious moment. Democracy faces a global crisis. We have seen 12 consecutive years of erosion in global levels of political rights and civil liberties, with many more countries declining than gaining each year, according to the nonprofit group Freedom House. Over the past decade, one in six democracies has failed. Today only a bare majority of the world’s larger states remain democracies. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , | Leave a Comment »

Democracy Could Bounce Back in 2019

Posted by hkarner - 2. Januar 2019

Date: 01-01-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal By William A. Galston

The old year saw some troubling setbacks, but things could have worked out far worse.

Twenty eighteen wasn’t a good year for democracy, but it could have been worse. Established autocracies showed few signs of democratic opening, backsliding among newer democracies continued, and established democracies struggled to regain stability after the shocks of recent years. Nonetheless, comparisons to the interwar years remain far-fetched, and it is hard to spot a potential Weimar Republic among democracies that existed before the Soviet Union’s collapse.

Vladimir Putin continues to play a weak hand well, at home and abroad. He has used energy revenues to sustain social programs and rebuild Russia’s military—both popular measures. The national debt remains low, and prudent reserves have buffered the government from fluctuating energy prices. Mr. Putin’s entente with the Russian Orthodox Church has bolstered his standing among tradition-minded Russians, especially in smaller towns and rural areas, and he has advanced his country’s long-held aims in Crimea and Syria at modest cost in blood and treasure. There are few obvious openings for democracy-minded dissidents to exploit. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , | Leave a Comment »

The Impact of Technology on Democracy

Posted by hkarner - 13. November 2018

Date: 12-11-2018
Source: The Wall Street Journal

Two former U.S. government officials also discuss the responsibilities private companies have to their users and the greater public

Questions have been raised about the effect technology is having on our political systems.

Capitol Hill has put Silicon Valley under the microscope.

With U.S. intelligence agencies continuing to raise concerns about foreign meddling in U.S. elections through online social platforms, technology executives have been called to account. In September, Facebook Inc. Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg and Twitter Inc. Chief Executive Jack Dorsey testified at a Senate hearing on what their companies were doing in response to foreign trolls and bots ahead of the November midterm elections. Regulators and consumer-advocacy groups have also raised concerns about the responsibility of large tech companies like Google Inc. to protect the vast amounts of user data they hold.

To assess the impact technology is having on our political systems, as well as what responsibilities private companies have to their users and the greater public, The Wall Street Journal turned to Nuala O’Connor, president and chief executive of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the former chief privacy officer in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and Beth Simone Noveck, director of the Governance Lab and professor in technology, culture and society at New York University’s Tandon School of Engineering. Prof. Noveck previously served as the U.S. deputy chief technology officer in the Obama administration.

Edited excerpts follow.

A golden age?
WSJ: What do you think is the biggest threat that technology poses to our democracy today? What do you view as its greatest contribution? Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Can American Democracy Come Back?

Posted by hkarner - 8. November 2018

Joseph E. Stiglitz, a Nobel laureate in economics, is University Professor at Columbia University and Chief Economist at the Roosevelt Institute. His most recent book is Globalization and Its Discontents Revisited: Anti-Globalization in the Era of Trump.

America’s ideals of freedom, democracy, and justice for all may never have been fully realized, but now they are under open attack. Democracy has become rule of, by, and for the few; and justice for all is available to all who are white and can afford it.

NEW YORK – The United States has long held itself up as a bastion of democracy. It has promoted democracy around the world. It fought, at great cost, for democracy against fascism in Europe during World War II. Now the fight has come home.

America’s credentials as a democracy were always slightly blemished. The US was founded as a representative democracy, but only a small fraction of its citizens – mostly white male property owners – were eligible to vote. After the abolition of slavery, the white people of America’s South struggled for nearly a century to keep African-Americans from voting, using poll taxes and literacy tests, for example, to make casting a ballot inaccessible to the poor. Their voting rights were guaranteed nearly a half-century after the enfranchisement of women in 1920. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , | Leave a Comment »

How Democracy Ends by David Runciman review – what Trump and Corbyn have in common

Posted by hkarner - 25. Juni 2018

Date: 24-06-2018
Source: The Guardian

A wonderful, contrarian book captures Twitter-era politics and the danger of allowing democracy to be eroded from within

After Greece’s 2015 referendum, ‘some have argued the government caved in the face of what amounted to a silent coup’.

“Democracy dies in darkness” runs the slogan on the Washington Post masthead, but if democracy really is dying around us, its demise has never been so loudly heralded nor so brightly lit. Even before Donald Trump’s emergence as a presidential candidate, it was clear that the global trend away from authoritarian regimes to democratic ones had slowed down; his rise was accompanied by a barrage of authors’ warnings that we are heading back into the 1930s. Never have the last days of Weimar seemed so worthy of study. Historians have developed a nice sideline in self-help manuals for a life of underground resistance to tyranny.

David Runciman’s bracingly intelligent new book is both a contribution to this debate and a refutation of it. How Democracy Ends shares the widespread sense that representative democracy is not doing well, but argues powerfully against screaming fascism at every turn. History, as Runciman states at the outset, does not repeat itself. The challenge he sets himself is to use the past to see what has happened to democracy today, in particular to diagnose its ailments, without assuming that the only alternative is the one imprinted on our collective memory.

The most successful democratic politicians are the ones who try to turn parties into social movements Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

After decades of triumph, democracy is losing ground

Posted by hkarner - 16. Juni 2018

Date: 14-06-2018
Source: The Economist

What is behind the reversal?

IN A glass case at the Diyarbakir Bar Association are a striped shirt, dark coat and coiled belt. They belonged to the former chairman, Tahir Elci, a lawyer who was murdered in 2015 amid clashes between the Turkish army and Kurdish separatists. He was standing by the Four-Legged Minaret, a 500-year-old landmark in the ancient city, calling for peace. Someone shot him in the head. No one knows who killed him. The government blames Kurdish terrorists. Many Kurds blame the government. After Elci’s death, the army pounded the rebel-held part of Diyarbakir to rubble. The debris, including body parts, was heaped onto trucks and dumped by a river. Locals are scared to talk about any of this.

Barely a decade ago, Turkey was a budding democracy and aspired to join the European Union. Now it is galloping towards dictatorship. In 2016 army officers tried to mount a coup, putting tanks in the streets, bombing parliament and nearly assassinating the president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan. It was quickly scotched. Mr Erdogan launched a purge. Over 200,000 people, mostly suspected members of the Gulen movement—the Islamist sect said to have led the failed putsch—were jailed or sacked. Anyone could be arrested for having attended a Gulenist school, holding an account at a Gulen-owned bank, or even possessing $1 bills, which the government says were a mark of Gulenism.

Millions of Turks are now terrified of their president. However, plenty admire him for protecting them from the Gulenists. Adem, an estate agent in Istanbul, congratulates Mr Erdogan for “cleaning away the enemies within”—echoing a government slogan. He says, of the purge’s victims: “They’ve been arrested because they’ve done something wrong.” He adds: “In America if you steal state secrets they put you in the electric chair, don’t they?” Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , | Leave a Comment »

Wie demokratisch ist der Euro?

Posted by hkarner - 12. Juni 2018

Dani Rodrik is Professor of International Political Economy at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. He is the author of The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy, Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science, and, most recently, Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy.

SAN SERVOLO, ITALIEN – Italiens Präsident lehnte kürzlich die Ernennung des Euroskeptikers Paolo Savona zum Finanzminister einer Regierung der Parteienallianz zwischen Fünf-Sterne-Bewegung und Lega Nord ab. Nun stellt sich die Frage, ob er damit die Demokratie in seinem Land schützte oder schwächte. Abgesehen von verfassungsrechtlichen Beschränkungen im speziell italienischen Kontext, geht es bei dieser Frage im Kern um demokratische Legitimität. Die schwierigen Probleme in diesem Zusammenhang müssen auf prinzipielle und angemessene Weise angegangen werden, wenn die Gesundheit unserer liberalen Demokratien wiederhergestellt werden soll.

Der Euro stellt eine vertragliche Verpflichtung dar, aus der es im Rahmen der geltenden Spielregeln keine klare Austrittsmöglichkeit gibt. Präsident Sergio Mattarella und seine Verteidiger weisen darauf hin, dass ein Euro-Austritt im Wahlkampf, der die populistische Koalition an die Macht brachte, nicht zur Debatte stand und dass mit Savonas Ernennung eine Finanzmarktkrise und wirtschaftliches Chaos gedroht hätten. Mattarellas Kritiker hingegen argumentieren, dass er seine Autorität überschritten und den Finanzmärkten damit ermöglicht habe, sich gegen die Ernennung eines Ministers einer vom Volk gewählten Regierung zu stellen. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

Posted in Artikel | Verschlagwortet mit: , , , , | Leave a Comment »