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Posts Tagged ‘brain’

The Machines That Will Read Your Mind

Posted by hkarner - 7. April 2019

Date: 06-04-2019
Source: The Wall Street Journal By Jerry Kaplan

Ever more sophisticated brain scans are combining with artificial intelligence to produce tools that can track thoughts, test truthfulness and someday, perhaps, download our very selves

When magnetic resonance imaging came into common use in the 1980s, it made the human brain visible in ways it had never been before. For the first time, we could see the soft brain tissue of a living subject, at a level of detail that could be observed previously only in autopsies. For doctors trying to help patients whose brains were damaged or diseased, MRI provided an invaluable snapshot of their condition.

By the 1990s, researchers had begun to measure changes in brain regions by using “functional” MRI. The technique detects oxygenated blood flow, revealing brain activity, not just brain structure. For cognitive neuroscientists, who study mental processes, fMRI was a godsend: It made it possible to identify which parts of the brain react to, say, faces, words or smells. It was a window through which to see the brain making sense of the external world. Suddenly we could watch human thought rippling across the rainbow-colored regions of brain scans. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The Key to Smarter AI: Copy the Brain

Posted by hkarner - 12. April 2018

Date: 11-04-2018
Source: The Wall Street Journal
Subject:Justin Sanchez of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is developing brain-computer interfaces to teach machines to think like us.

Everyday life is incredibly complex—filled with unexpected events, nuanced problems and new skills to be mastered. Fortunately for us, the brain is very good at processing new information. AI, on the other hand, isn’t. A computer can teach itself to master a narrow, predetermined skill, such as identifying dogs in photos or translating from English to French. But that same machine would be at a loss when faced with even the simplest unexpected task outside its area of expertise. That’s because AI lacks the brain’s plasticity—its remarkable ability to adapt and evolve.

Until AI can learn on the fly as our brains do, it will never be truly intelligent. One avenue to teaching AI to act like the brain is to study the brain itself. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Posted by hkarner - 13. Oktober 2017

Date: 12-10-2017
Source: Technology Review
Subject: Inside the Moonshot Effort to Finally Figure Out the Brain

Inside the Moonshot Effort to Finally Figure Out the Brain

AI is only loosely modeled on the brain. So what if you wanted to do it right? You’d need to do what has been impossible until now: map what actually happens in neurons and nerve fibers.

„Here’s the problem with artificial intelligence today,“ says David Cox. Yes, it has gotten astonishingly good, from near-perfect facial recognition to driverless cars and world-champion Go-playing machines. And it’s true that some AI applications don’t even have to be programmed anymore: they’re based on architectures that allow them to learn from experience.

Yet there is still something clumsy and brute-force about it, says Cox, a neuroscientist at Harvard. “To build a dog detector, you need to show the program thousands of things that are dogs and thousands that aren’t dogs,” he says. “My daughter only had to see one dog”—and has happily pointed out puppies ever since. And the knowledge that today’s AI does manage to extract from all that data can be oddly fragile. Add some artful static to an image—noise that a human wouldn’t even notice—and the computer might just mistake a dog for a dumpster. That’s not good if people are using facial recognition for, say, security on smartphones. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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An Old Head May Not Be Wiser

Posted by hkarner - 15. Dezember 2010

Date: 15-12-2010
 Source: Technology Review

 Brain imaging and economic research suggest thatolder people make less predictable decisions about money.

The common perception is that older people are more conservative investors than their younger counterparts. But brain imaging studies combined with economic analysis are causing neuroscientists to question that idea. Recent research suggests that sometimes older people make riskier and less logical investment decisions than younger people, and that specific changes in the brain associated with aging may underlie those decisions.

A better understanding of these changes could help scientists figure out what forms of information are most useful to older people seeking to make sound financial decisions—an issue that could soon have a greater social impact than ever before.

„Huge demographic changes are taking place all over the world,“ says Gregory Samanez Larkin, a postdoctoral researcher at Vanderbilt University and codirector of the Scientific Research Network on Decision Neuroscience and Aging, a multidisciplinary, multi-center effort funded by the National Institute on Aging. „Very soon there will be a much larger percentage of people over age 65, and that has economic implications.“ Financial regulatory agencies are interested in the research, says Larkin, and are funding neuroscientists as they seek ways to help older people make better investment decisions. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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