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Posts Tagged ‘AI’

An understanding of AI’s limitations is starting to sink in

Posted by hkarner - 12. Juni 2020

Date: 11‑06‑2020

Source: The Economist

After years of hype, many people feel AI has failed to deliver, says Tim Cross

It will be as if the world had created a second China, made not of billions of people and millions of factories, but of algorithms and humming computers. pwc, a professional‑services firm, predicts that artificial intelligence (ai) will add $16trn to the global economy by 2030. The total of all activity—from banks and biotech to shops and construction—in the world’s second‑largest economy was just $13trn in 2018.

pwc’s claim is no outlier. Rival prognosticators at McKinsey put the figure at $13trn. Others go for qualitative drama, rather than quantitative. Sundar Pichai, Google’s boss, has described developments in ai as “more profound than fire or electricity”. Other forecasts see similarly large changes, but less happy ones. Clever computers capable of doing the jobs of radiologists, lorry drivers or warehouse workers might cause a wave of unemployment.

 Yet lately doubts have been creeping in about whether today’s ai technology is really as world‑changing as it seems. It is running up against limits of one kind or another, and has failed to deliver on some of its proponents’ more grandiose promises. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Businesses are finding AI hard to adopt

Posted by hkarner - 12. Juni 2020

Date: 11‑06‑2020

Source: The Economist

Not every company is an internet giant

“Facebook: the inside story”, Steven Levy’s recent book about the American social‑media giant, paints a vivid picture of the firm’s size, not in terms of revenues or share price but in the sheer amount of human activity that thrums through its servers. 1.73bn people use Facebook every day, writing comments and uploading videos. An operation on that scale is so big, writes Mr Levy, “that it can only be policed by algorithms or armies”.

In fact, Facebook uses both. Human moderators work alongside algorithms trained to spot posts that violate either an individual country’s laws or the site’s own policies. But algorithms have many advantages over their human counterparts. They do not sleep, or take holidays, or complain about their performance reviews. They are quick, scanning thousands of messages a second, and untiring. And, of course, they do not need to be paid. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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The Art of AI

Posted by hkarner - 30. Mai 2020

Date: 29‑05‑2020

Source: PROJECT SYNDICATE interviews KAI‑FU LEE

As the world enters a new decade, research and development into artificial intelligence and its many applications are barreling forward, and nowhere more so than in China. Although popular narratives tend to focus on the threats posed by AI, the truth is that many of the technology’s dangers have been overhyped, and its promises neglected.

A leading figure in the Chinese tech scene and in artificial‑intelligence development globally, Kai‑Fu Lee earned a PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University in 1988 before serving in executive roles at Apple, SGI, Microsoft, and Google, where he was president of Google China. Now the chairman and CEO of Sinovation Ventures in Beijing, he is the author of AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order. Here, he discusses the global AI race, the current state of the field, and what may – and should – come next.

Project Syndicate: As someone who long worked for US companies and now oversees a tech venture capital firm, you’re deeply familiar with the world’s two main settings for AI development and research. What are the trade‑offs of each R&D environment? What advantages does China offer over the US, and what must policymakers change or improve to achieve China’s goal of catching up to and surpassing the US? Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Artificial Intelligence Can Serve Democracy

Posted by hkarner - 29. Mai 2020

Date: 28‑05‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal By Michael Kratsios

The G‑7 launches a new global partnership Thursday.

The U.S. is using every tool at its disposal to defeat the novel coronavirus, including artificial intelligence. American laboratories are harnessing AI to discover new therapeutics. The Food and Drug Administration approved an AI tool to help detect coronavirus in CT scans. And the White House led an initiative to create a database with more than 128,000 articles that scientists can analyze using AI to help understand the virus better and develop treatments.

At the same time, AI is being twisted by authoritarian regimes to violate rights. The Chinese Communist Party is reportedly using AI to uncover and punish those who criticize the regime’s pandemic response and to institute a type of coronavirus social‑credit score—assigning people color codes to determine who is free to go out and who will be forced into quarantine.

As the world begins to recover from the pandemic, nations face a stark choice about what vision of artificial intelligence will prevail. As Group of Seven nations meet this year under the organization’s U.S. presidency, there is a critical opportunity to shape the evolution of AI in a way that respects fundamental rights and upholds our shared values. That is why G‑7 technology ministers will agree Thursday to launch the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence, or GPAI, together with other democratic countries. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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What History Tells Us About the Accelerating AI Revolution

Posted by hkarner - 25. Mai 2020

Date: 24‑05‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal By Irving Wladawsky‑Berger

3d rendering robot learning or machine learning with education hud interface

A few weeks before our lives were turned upside down by Covid‑19, I read Technology at Work v4.0, the fourth report in the Technology at Work Series developed by Citigroup in collaboration with Oxford University.  The report includes an excellent chapter on What History Tells Us About the Coming AI Revolution by Oxford professor Carl Benedikt Frey based on his 2019 book The Technology Trap.

Recent AI advances have “sparked much excitement…  yet despite this, most ordinary people don’t feel particularly optimistic about the future,” wrote Mr. Frey.  For example, a 2017 Pew Research survey found that three quarters of Americans expressed serious concerns about AI and automation, and just over a third believe that their children will be better off financially than they were.

But, in fact, serious concerns about the impact of technology are part of a historical pattern.  “Many of the trends we see today, such as the disappearance of middle‑income jobs, stagnant wages and growing inequality were also features of the Industrial Revolution,” he writes. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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How the Other Half Automates

Posted by hkarner - 26. April 2020

Date: 24‑04‑2020

Source: Project Syndicate by Daron Acemoglu

Daron Acemoglu, Professor of Economics at MIT, is co‑author (with James A. Robinson) of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty and The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty. 

Economists have long worried that many of the cutting‑edge technologies created in advanced economies will not necessarily benefit developing and emerging economies, owing to vast differences in capital intensity and labor‑market conditions. This disconnect could grow even more pronounced in the age of artificial intelligence.

CAMBRIDGE – Although experts disagree about whether artificial intelligence will reach human‑like levels anytime soon, few doubt that the field will make major advances in the coming years. In the West, how AI will affect workers is already fueling growing concern, with some warning that millions of jobs will be automated. Yet even if such predictions turn out to be alarmist (or industry hype), increased awareness of AI and its implications suggests that advanced economies will be better prepared for whatever is coming. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Why hasn’t AI changed the world yet?

Posted by hkarner - 4. März 2020

Date: 03‑03‑2020

Source: BBC

When Kursat Ceylan, who is blind, was trying to find his way to a hotel, he used an app on his phone for directions, but also had to hold his cane and pull his luggage.

He ended up walking into a pole, cutting his forehead.

This inspired him to develop, along with a partner, Wewalk ‑ a cane equipped with artificial intelligence (AI), that detects objects above chest level and pairs with apps including Google Maps and Amazon’s Alexa, so the user can ask questions. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Rethinking how we value data

Posted by hkarner - 1. März 2020

Date: 27‑02‑2020

Source: The Economist

Looking at the world’s most precious resource through new eyes

Everyone knows that data are worth something. The biggest companies in the world base their businesses on them. Artificial‑intelligence algorithms guzzle them in droves. But data are not like normal traded goods and services, such as apples and haircuts. They can be used time and again, like public goods. They also have spillover effects, both positive, such as helping to improve health care, and negative, such as breaches of personal information. That makes them far from easy to value.

A new report, led by Diane Coyle, an economist at the University of Cambridge, attempts to address this by understanding the value of data and who stands to benefit from it. She says market prices often do not ascribe full value to data because, in many cases, trading is too thin. Moreover, while much of society’s emphasis is on the dangers of misuse of personal data, the report chooses to highlight data’s contribution to “the broad economic well‑being of all of society.” That gives it a much deeper value than a simple monetary one. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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A Vision of AI for Joyful Education

Posted by hkarner - 29. Februar 2020

Date: 28‑02‑2020

Source: Scientific American By Chris Piech, Lisa Einstein

Here’s how we can avert the dangers and maximize the benefits of this powerful but still emerging technology

In a 2013 post, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg sketched out a “rough plan” to provide free, basic internet to the world and thus spread opportunity and interconnection. However, the United Nations Human Rights Council reported that, in Myanmar, Facebook’s efforts to follow through on such aspirations accelerated hate speech, fomented division, and incited offline violence in the Rohingya genocide. Free, basic internet now serves as a warning of the complexities of technological impact on society. For Chris, an AI researcher in education, and Lisa, a science educator and student of international cyber policy, this example gives pause: What unintended consequences could AI in education have?

Many look to AI‑powered tools to address the need to scale high‑quality education and with good reason. A surge in educational content from online courses, expanded access to digital devices, and the contemporary renaissance in AI seem to provide the pieces necessary to deliver personalized learning at scale. However, technology has a poor track record for solving social issues without creating unintended harm. What negative effects can we predict, and how can we refine the objectives of AI researchers to account for such unintended consequences? Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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AI Comes to the Tax Code

Posted by hkarner - 28. Februar 2020

Date: 27‑02‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal

Governments turn to machine learning to boost revenue as taxpayers seek to reduce their bills

IRS Commissioner Charles Rettig spoke at an agency event in Washington, D.C., in July.

IRVINE, Calif.—Tax cheats, beware: The machines are watching.

Governments are increasingly relying on machine learning and data analytics to analyze troves of data as they seek to detect tax evasion, respond to taxpayers’ questions and make themselves more efficient.

In Brazil, the customs agency’s system for detecting anomalies now prompts more than 30% of inspections. Canada next month will launch Charlie the Chatbot, an automated system that will respond to inquiries about tax filing.

The Internal Revenue Service is designing machine‑built graphs to plot the relationships among participants in business deals, giving auditors a new tool to analyze transactions and detect tax avoidance. The agency is using artificial intelligence to study notes that agency employees take when fielding questions from taxpayers and testing which combinations of formal notices and contacts are most likely to get a taxpayer who owes money to send a check. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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