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Posts Tagged ‘AI’

Why hasn’t AI changed the world yet?

Posted by hkarner - 4. März 2020

Date: 03‑03‑2020

Source: BBC

When Kursat Ceylan, who is blind, was trying to find his way to a hotel, he used an app on his phone for directions, but also had to hold his cane and pull his luggage.

He ended up walking into a pole, cutting his forehead.

This inspired him to develop, along with a partner, Wewalk ‑ a cane equipped with artificial intelligence (AI), that detects objects above chest level and pairs with apps including Google Maps and Amazon’s Alexa, so the user can ask questions. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Rethinking how we value data

Posted by hkarner - 1. März 2020

Date: 27‑02‑2020

Source: The Economist

Looking at the world’s most precious resource through new eyes

Everyone knows that data are worth something. The biggest companies in the world base their businesses on them. Artificial‑intelligence algorithms guzzle them in droves. But data are not like normal traded goods and services, such as apples and haircuts. They can be used time and again, like public goods. They also have spillover effects, both positive, such as helping to improve health care, and negative, such as breaches of personal information. That makes them far from easy to value.

A new report, led by Diane Coyle, an economist at the University of Cambridge, attempts to address this by understanding the value of data and who stands to benefit from it. She says market prices often do not ascribe full value to data because, in many cases, trading is too thin. Moreover, while much of society’s emphasis is on the dangers of misuse of personal data, the report chooses to highlight data’s contribution to “the broad economic well‑being of all of society.” That gives it a much deeper value than a simple monetary one. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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A Vision of AI for Joyful Education

Posted by hkarner - 29. Februar 2020

Date: 28‑02‑2020

Source: Scientific American By Chris Piech, Lisa Einstein

Here’s how we can avert the dangers and maximize the benefits of this powerful but still emerging technology

In a 2013 post, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg sketched out a “rough plan” to provide free, basic internet to the world and thus spread opportunity and interconnection. However, the United Nations Human Rights Council reported that, in Myanmar, Facebook’s efforts to follow through on such aspirations accelerated hate speech, fomented division, and incited offline violence in the Rohingya genocide. Free, basic internet now serves as a warning of the complexities of technological impact on society. For Chris, an AI researcher in education, and Lisa, a science educator and student of international cyber policy, this example gives pause: What unintended consequences could AI in education have?

Many look to AI‑powered tools to address the need to scale high‑quality education and with good reason. A surge in educational content from online courses, expanded access to digital devices, and the contemporary renaissance in AI seem to provide the pieces necessary to deliver personalized learning at scale. However, technology has a poor track record for solving social issues without creating unintended harm. What negative effects can we predict, and how can we refine the objectives of AI researchers to account for such unintended consequences? Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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AI Comes to the Tax Code

Posted by hkarner - 28. Februar 2020

Date: 27‑02‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal

Governments turn to machine learning to boost revenue as taxpayers seek to reduce their bills

IRS Commissioner Charles Rettig spoke at an agency event in Washington, D.C., in July.

IRVINE, Calif.—Tax cheats, beware: The machines are watching.

Governments are increasingly relying on machine learning and data analytics to analyze troves of data as they seek to detect tax evasion, respond to taxpayers’ questions and make themselves more efficient.

In Brazil, the customs agency’s system for detecting anomalies now prompts more than 30% of inspections. Canada next month will launch Charlie the Chatbot, an automated system that will respond to inquiries about tax filing.

The Internal Revenue Service is designing machine‑built graphs to plot the relationships among participants in business deals, giving auditors a new tool to analyze transactions and detect tax avoidance. The agency is using artificial intelligence to study notes that agency employees take when fielding questions from taxpayers and testing which combinations of formal notices and contacts are most likely to get a taxpayer who owes money to send a check. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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How to know if artificial intelligence is about to destroy civilization

Posted by hkarner - 26. Februar 2020

Date: 25‑02‑2020

Source: Technology Review by Oren Etzioni

These canaries in the coal mines of AI would be signs that superintelligent robot overlords are approaching

Could we wake up one morning dumbstruck that a super‑powerful AI has emerged, with disastrous consequences? Books like Superintelligence by Nick Bostrom and Life 3.0 by Max Tegmark, as well as more recent articles, argue that malevolent superintelligence is an existential risk for humanity.

But one can speculate endlessly. It’s better to ask a more concrete, empirical question: What would alert us that superintelligence is indeed around the corner?

We might call such harbingers canaries in the coal mines of AI. If an artificial‑

intelligence program develops a fundamental new capability, that’s the equivalent of a canary collapsing: an early warning of AI breakthroughs on the horizon. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Who will benefit most from the data economy?

Posted by hkarner - 23. Februar 2020

Date: 20‑02‑2020

Source: The Economist

It is already unequal and that inequality could get worse

The data economy is a work in progress. Its economics still have to be worked out; its infrastructure and its businesses need to be fully built; geopolitical arrangements must be found. But there is one final major tension: between the wealth the data economy will create and how it will be distributed. The data economy—or the “second economy”, as Brian Arthur of the Santa Fe Institute terms it—will make the world a more productive place no matter what, he predicts. But who gets what and how is less clear. “We will move from an economy where the main challenge is to produce more and more efficiently,” says Mr Arthur, “to one where distribution of the wealth produced becomes the biggest issue.”

The data economy as it exists today is already very unequal. It is dominated by a few big platforms. In the most recent quarter, Amazon, Apple, Alphabet, Microsoft and Facebook made a combined profit of $55bn, more than the next five most valuable American tech firms over the past 12 months. This corporate inequality is largely the result of network effects—economic forces that mean size begets size. A firm that can collect a lot of data, for instance, can make better use of artificial intelligence and attract more users, who in turn supply more data. Such firms can also recruit the best data scientists and have the cash to buy the best ai startups. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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What AI still can’t do

Posted by hkarner - 21. Februar 2020

Date: 20‑02‑2020

Source: Technology Review by Brian Bergstein

Artificial intelligence won’t be very smart if computers don’t grasp cause and effect. That’s something even humans have trouble with.

In less than a decade, computers have become extremely good at diagnosing diseases, translating languages, and transcribing speech. They can outplay humans at complicated strategy games, create photorealistic images, and suggest useful replies to your emails.

Yet despite these impressive achievements, artificial intelligence has glaring weaknesses.

Machine‑learning systems can be duped or confounded by situations they haven’t seen before. A self‑driving car gets flummoxed by a scenario that a human driver could handle easily. An AI system laboriously trained to carry out one task (identifying cats, say) has to be taught all over again to do something else (identifying dogs). In the process, it’s liable to lose some of the expertise it had in the original task. Computer scientists call this problem catastrophic forgetting.”

These shortcomings have something in common: they exist because AI systems don’t understand causation. They see that some events are associated with other events, but they don’t ascertain which things directly make other things happen. It’s as if you knew that the presence of clouds made rain likelier, but you didn’t know clouds caused rain.

Elias Bareinboim

Elias Bareinboim: AI systems are clueless when it comes to causation. 

Understanding cause and effect is a big aspect of what we call common sense, and it’s an area in which AI systems today “are clueless,” says Elias Bareinboim. He should know: as the director of the new Causal Artificial Intelligence Lab at Columbia University, he’s at the forefront of efforts to fix this problem. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Artificial intelligence: How is the EU planning to make up ground on US and Chinese firms?

Posted by hkarner - 21. Februar 2020

Date: 20‑02‑2020

Source: Euronews

President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen at the AI Xperience Center in Brussels

After much brainstorming, the EU has unveiled how it plans to catch the US and China when it comes to artificial intelligence (AI).

Ursula von der Leyen, announcing the new strategy, said AI could be hugely lucrative but that it came with key risks.

Here we take a look at what Brussels wants to do, why and what critics think of the plan.

What is artificial intelligence?Artificial intelligence sees machines use intelligence typically associated with humans, such as learning from mistakes and adjusting to new inputs. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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Trump Wants to Double Spending on AI, Quantum Computing

Posted by hkarner - 13. Februar 2020

Date: 12‑02‑2020

Source: The Wall Street Journal

White House budget calls for annual spending of $2 billion on AI and $860 million on quantum within two years

U.S. Chief Technology Officer Michael Kratsios says the country faces a ‘global power competition’ for AI, quantum computing and other critical technologies.

The White House on Monday proposed roughly doubling nondefense research‑and‑development spending on artificial intelligence and quantum information sciences, citing fierce global competition, while cutting overall funding for R&D.

The proposal is part of President Trump’s $4.8 trillion federal budget for the fiscal year ending in September 2021. A White House budget isn’t binding; it signals an administration’s areas of focus for congressional budget negotiations in the year ahead.

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Das Potenzial der KI in Schwellenländern

Posted by hkarner - 29. Januar 2020

Frank-Jürgen Richter

Frank-Jürgen Richter is the Founder and Chairman of Horasis: The Global Visions Community.

KREUZLINGEN – In den fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften durchdringt Künstliche Intelligenz (KI) fast jeden Aspekt des Lebens. Die Reichweite der KI erstreckt sich von der staatlichen Ebene über Unternehmen bis hin zu jedem Einzelnen und ihre Umsetzung beweist ihren transformativen Charakter. 

Doch die Vorteile sind nicht nur in den Industrieländern spürbar. Bis 2030 wird KI voraussichtlich 15,7 Billionen Dollar zur Weltwirtschaft beitragen und in den kommenden Jahren für alle Gesellschaftsschichten sozioökonomischen Nutzen bringen. Ein erheblicher Anteil davon entfällt auf die Schwellenländer, in denen KI bereits jetzt bei der Bewältigung tief verwurzelter Probleme hilft.Die enormen Summen, die in KI investiert werden, verdeutlichen das Potenzial, das viele in dieser neuen Technologie sehen. Schätzungen der International Data Corporation zufolge werden die weltweiten Ausgaben für KI im Jahr 2019 bei etwa 36 Milliarden US-Dollar liegen. Das entspricht einer bemerkenswerten Steigerung von 44 Prozent gegenüber 2018. Bis 2022 rechnet man mit einem weiteren Anstieg auf über 79 Billionen US-Dollar.Der Grund, warum derart hohe Summen in KI-Investitionen fließen, liegt auf der Hand: der daraus zu erzielende weltweite Geschäftswert wird bis 2022 voraussichtlich auf 3,9 Billionen US-Dollar ansteigen, also auf mehr als das Dreifache des Wertes von 1,2 Billionen US-Dollar, der 2018 erzielt wurde. Den Rest des Beitrags lesen »

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